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Transcript of EngLang Glossary
Phonetics and Phonology
semantics refers to the study of meaning. the other subsystems all serve the purpose of communicating meaningful messages between individuals. in semantics we study meaning and how it is constructed through features of each other subsystems. words can be classified according to their semantic type. all words fall into 2 classes,open and closed classes.
Phonetics and Phonology refer to the study of sounds and sound patterns. In describing spoken language we want to know what sounds are used, how they are formed into patterns, how they change in different circumstances, and how they can be represented in written form. we also want to know how pitch, stress and intonations contribute to the meaning of what is said
Morphology and lexicology
We investigate the words of a language by means of the study of morphology and lexicology.
In morphology we explore the structure and formation of words, how words can be classified into different types (parts of speech), and how words vary in form for different grammatical purposes.
In lexicology we are concerned with establishing what a word is in a language, how the meanings of words can be described, the etymology of words and their meanings and how words relate to each other in the lexicon as a whole.
The study of phrases and sentences
Discourse Analysis refers to the study of connected sentences. We rarely communicate in single sentences; whether it be a telephone conversation or a newspaper article,the sentences combine into a text. Discourse analysis examines the organisation and structure of sequences of sentences within larger texts to determine how we package out message in order to provide the right sort of cues to help our audience interpret a piece of discourse appropriately
Phonology is the study of sound patterns used in a language
Mode of language
the study of the words we use and the words in a persons lexicon
the study of the internal structure of words
Noun- A noun is a naming word for a person, place, thing, idea or quality. there are four types of nouns
A language unit that contains one or more words. Phrases are smaller than clauses and are named after the part of speech category of the word that is most important within the phrase. For example, 'the red skirt' and 'a cup of coffee' are noun phrases, while 'really very beautiful' and 'quite extraordinary' are adjective phrases.
Common: nouns name any category of thing or pen which is not specific to an individual eg) dog, football, tree
Proper: nouns are common nouns with a specific name. they begin with a capital letter eg) Anna, Melbourne, Maths
Abstract: nouns are a type of common noun. it names an idea, quality or state eg) love, health, happiness
Collective: nouns name a group or collection of things eg) team, audience, litter
Verb- a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main art of the predicate of a sentence
Adverb- an adverb adds to the meaning of (or modifies) a verb. It is used with a verb to tell us how (manner), when (time), where (place) and to what extent (degree) something happened. eg) she was 'quite' sick - quite adding a degree to something happening.
Adjective- an adjective adds to the meaning of a noun. It describes a thing in terms of its shape, size, its texture, its colour. It tells us how many, whose and which one we mean. eg) The 'large' dog snarled (size)
in semantics, open class words are content words, they carry the meaning.
A larger unit that a phrase, and usually contains a verb. A complete clause may stand alone as a simple sentence part of a compound, complex or compound-complex sentence.
closed class words are function words , they function to connect the content words.
Open class words readily admit members
A sentence that contains a single clause
A sentence containing two or more clauses of equal status, where the relationship between the clauses is one of coordination. Compound sentences make use of coordinating conjunctions.
A sentence containing two or more clauses, where the relationship between the clauses is one of subordination. A subordinating conjunction may occur as a marker of a subordinate class.
The sentence type typically used to make a statement. Declaratives have the structure of basic clauses, where the subject precedes the verb. For example, 'I like milk on my cereal.'
The sentence type typically used to express a command or directive. Imperatives do not typically contain a subject. As the speaker is addressing the hearer(s), 'you', the subject can readily be recovered from the context. In imperatives the verb is always in infinitive form. For example, 'Look at me.'
The sentence type typically used to express an exclamation. An exclamation begins with either 'what' or 'how'. For example, 'What a beautiful picture you drew!'
The sentence type typically used to ask questions. Interrogatives usually have subject-auxiliary inversion. This means that the order of the subject and the auxiliary verb is reversed compared with basic clauses. For example, 'Can you come?' as compared with the basic clause, 'You can come.'
Closed class words do not admit new members
Conjunctions- Conjunctions join sentences, clauses or single word. Conjunctions may begin a sentence or may be placed between the words or sentences being joined. Using a variety of conjunctions will ensure that you use a range of sentence structures, giving your writing more vitality and making it more engaging for our readers. Conjunctions simply 'join'. They don't show the relationship between objects or modify other words. eg) 'Although' his skateboard was old, it was still very fast.
Prepositions- A preposition indicates the position of one object (either people or things) in relation to another. eg) The blot rolled 'under' the motor.
Article- an article is a word that is with a noun to indicate the type of reference made by the noun. A definite article indicates that its noun is a particular one identifiable to the listener. It may be something that the speaker has already mentioned, or it may be something uniquely specified. The definite article in English, for both singular and plural nouns, 'the' eg) 'The' children know 'the' fastest way home.
Pronouns: a grammatical part of speech containing words used to substitue for noun phrases. for example i, you, her, and mine are pronouns
function words: a word that carries grammatical meaning only. for example, pronouns, preopisitons, and conjunctions
content words: a word that carries lexical meaning that refers to something in the real world. the following classes contain content words: nouns, verbs,adjectives and adverbs
prefix: an affix that occurs before a root. for example, dis- in dislocate or re-in relocate. prefixes can totally change the meanings of words, usually changing the definition to its opposite meaning, or completly changing the definition altogether.
suffix: an affix that occurs after the root. for example -ly in happily and -est in highest. like prefixes, suffixes can completely change the meaning of a word or add more details etc.
A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts.
modifys a verb's tense or a noun's number without affecting the word's meaning or class
when combined with a root, change either the semantic meaning or part of speech of the effect word
can function interdependently as words and can appear with other lexemes
appear only as parts of words, always in conjunction with a root and sometimes with other bound morphemes
a word or word element from which other words grow, usually through the addition of prefixes and suffixes
stress: emphasizing syllables of a word to give more meaning about what you're saying
intonation: the pattern of pitch in speech or utterances
pitch: the rise and fall of your tone of voice and if you speak in high or low tones
volume: how loud you say something
tempo: how fast you say something
holophrastic: when children tend to express in one word what would be expressed in several words, in the early stages of learning the language.
overgeneralisation: the process of extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language norm, as when a child uses the regular past tense verb ending -ed of forms like I walked to produce forms like *I goed or *I rided.
undergeneralisation: An example of under generalization would be when some children think of an animal as something with four legs and fur and are therefore quite surprised when their teacher says that fish, birds, and insects are also animals.
Prefix: a morpheme that is added to the front of a stem, like unbelievable, un is the prefix or disable, dis is the prefix
Suffix: a morpheme that is added to the end of a stem, for example wanted, ed is the suffix or in the word expression, ion is the suffix attached to the stem
Language can be spoken, written or signed.
Speaking is the primary mode of language, and is considered less formal and spontaneous.
Writing is the secondary mode of language considered more formal in society and permanent, and is well thought out and rewritten.
Signing is used for people who can't hear
Paralinguistic features are visual cues that people make use of when listening to and speaking to others. These include facial expressions, body language, eye gazes and hand gestures. Paralinguistic features add expression and extra meaning to language to support it.