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The Rules of Photosynthesis!

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by

D. Keller

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of The Rules of Photosynthesis!

The Rules of Photosynthesis!
By: Darby Keller

Rule #1: Chloroplasts
Rule #2: Know the Equation!!!
Sunlight + Water + Carbon Dioxide-->
Oxygen + Glucose + (Water)
Rule #4: Different Plants!?
There are 3 different kinds of plants:
1.) C3 plants-- C3 plants are the most common plants and they use photosynthesis to produce a 3- Carbon compound (flowers).
2.) C4 plants-- C4 plants are found in hot/ dry climates and require more energy as Carbon Dioxide is bonded to a 3-Carbon compound instead of RuBP to create a 4-Carbon compound. These plants tend to grow faster (corn and sugar cane).
3.)CAM plants-- These plants absorb carbon dioxide at night and fix the carbon dioxide to a 4- Carbon compound and then during the day they release Carbon dioxide (cactus).
Rule #6: Cyclic?
Cyclic Light reactions is when one photosystem is being used when high-energy electrons leave and travel down an electron transport chain, releasing energy and provides extra ATP needed by the reactions that occur in the stroma.
This reaction is not typical and not very efficient since it wastes energy.
Rule #8: Follow the Process!
Stroma: light green area surrounding thylakoids where dark reactions occur
Thylakoid: sac-like membrane where light reactions occur
Grana: stacks of thylakodis
Why is water in parenthesis in the products?

~water can be a product because depending on how well the plant is watered it will produce water as well
Rule #3: Nutrition?
There is a major difference between a producer/ autotroph and a consumer/ heterotroph. Producers/ autotrophs are green plants and they use photosynthesis to produce their "food" whereas consumers/ heterotrophs are humans and animals, the things that "consume" the producers
Rule #5: Light Dependent
Light dependent reactions is when the suns light energy is absorbed by the plant and it then excites electrons within the chlorophyll. These electrons move until they are gradually released and their energy is harnessed in the Electron Transport Chain. This energy combines ADP to make ATP. These lost electrons are replaced by water molecules that are being split at the same time as the electrons are being excited. The oxygen leaves the plant and hydrogen combines with NADP to form NADPH.
Diagram of Light- Dependent Reactions
Rule #7: Noncyclic?
Noncyclic reactions the form of light reactions that form both ATP and NADPH. The electrons move from photosystem two to an electron receptor and down an electron transport chain, which the energy is harnessed to produce ATP. The electrons then are re-excited by more sunlight in photosystem one and the energy causes the hydrogen from the water molecule to bond with NADP to form NADPH.
This occurs because it is the most common and efficient form of light-reactions in comparison to cyclic reactions and it doesn't waste any energy.
Energy is reused by both systems
Rule #9: Form ATP the RIGHT Way!
If you go back to rule number 8 and you look at the chart is says ATP going between the light and dark reactions (next slide). ATP has to be formed a certain way! You have to produce it during light reactions. It has to be formed when hydrogen passes between the enzyme ATP synthase and the energy that is used (in facilitated diffusion) bonds the phosphate group and adenosine diphosphate together to form adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.
Rule #10: Light INDEPENDENT!
Light independent reactions use the ATP and the NADPH formed in light dependent reactions to power the bonding in light independent reactions. Carbon dioxide bonds with RuBP, which makes it an unstable 6- Carbon compound which then causes carbon dioxide reduction to for 2 3-carbon PGA. When the PGA reacts with hydrogen from NADPH and ATP it breaks apart and forms PGAL, or G3P. One of the six G3P's breaks off and then it bonds with another G3P to form glucose or other organic compounds. The other 5 rearrange and form the RuBP, and the cycle continues again.
LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS (CALVIN CYCLE)!
Rule #11: Know Your Leaf!
Parts of the Leaf!
1. Cuticle- waxy watertight layer on external wall of epidermal cells
2. Upper epidermis- layer directly beneath cuticle
3. Palisade Mesophyll- layer of vertically elongated cells containing chloroplasts
4. Spongy Mesophyll- tissue made of loosely arranged parenchyma cells containing chloroplasts
5. Vasular Bundle- undle of vascular tissue called xylem (brings water and nutrients from roots) and phloem (mainly transports sugars)
6. Air Space- space containing air
7. Lower Epidermis- layer covering cell with stomata and guard cells
8. Guard Cells- one of a pair of specialized cells that border a stoma and regulate gas exchange
9. Stomata- opening in a leaf or stem
enabling gas exchange
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