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Interactive Models of Reading
Transcript of Interactive Models of Reading
Learning to read in the contemporary classroom
"Reading instruction must be rooted in the connections of texts to engagement in and simulations of actions, activities, and interactions-- to read and imagine material and social worlds" (Gee, 2004, p. 119)
Bottom-up models of reading
Begins with print
Initiated with decoding graphic symbols into sounds
Identify features of letters
Link these features to recognize letters
Combine letters to recognize spelling patterns
Links spelling patterns to recognize words
Proceed to sentences, paragraphs and text-level processing
Top-down models of reading
The receiver or reader decodes the print to unlock the information
The sender or writer transmits information through print
Meaning begins with print
Translating print to meaning begins with reader's prior knowledge
Make predictions or 'educated' guesses about meaning
Readers decode graphic symbols into sounds to 'check out' hypothesis about meaning
Bottom-up and Top-down models
Act of reading is triggered by the reader's prior knowledge and experience in order to construct meaning.
The way in which text is arranged to convey information.
The act of reading is triggered by graphophonemic information such as letters, syllables, and words in order to construct meaning from print.
The "bottom up" approach stipulates that the meaning of any text must be "decoded" by the reader and that students are "reading" when they can "sound out" words on a page. (Phonics)
It emphasizes the ability to de-code or put into sound what is seen in a text. It ignores helping emerging readers to recognize what they, as readers, bring to the information on the page.
Bottom-up models are said to be "data-driven"
Reading involves a series of steps that occur within milliseconds in the mind of the reader.
The reader takes one "linguistic step" after another.
Information triggered by reader's prior knowledge
As opposed to being "data driven," top-down models are said to be conceptually driven.
IDEAS ~ CONCEPTS
The interactive model (Rumelhart 1977; Stanovich 1980) stresses both what is on the written page and what a reader brings to it using both top-down and bottom-up skills.
It views reading is the interaction between reader and text.
Beginning with the recognition of key features in letters and continuing
letter by letter
word by word
sentence by sentence
until reaching the top-- the
of the text being read.
FLAN AND GLOCK
Flan was a flim.
Glock was a plopper.
It was unusual for a flim and a plopper to be crods, but Flan and Glock were crods. They meded together.
Flan was keaded to moak at a mox. Glock wanted to kead there too. But hte lear said he could not kead there. Glock anged that the lear said he could not kead there because he was a plopper.
We do not need to know the meaning
of the words to understand the
meaning of this story.
Reader uses both bottom-up and top-down strategies simultaneously or alternately to comprehend the text.
Reader uses top-down strategies until he/she encounters an unfamiliar word, then employs decoding skills to achieve comprehension.
Interactive reading creates a community with shared reading
Interactive Approach in the classroom
The interactive model stresses both what is on the written page and what a reader brings to it by
using both top-down
Reading is the interaction between reader and text.
Like learning to drive, the new reader is focused on decoding & comprehending.
Information processing in Interactive Models of Reading
Semantic & Syntactic Information
Reading is initiated by formulating hypotheses about meaning AND by decoding letter and words.
Understanding & Comprehension
The dog bites the man.
The man bites the dog.
When teachers and children engage in interactive reading & writing experiences, they demonstrate that literacy learning is social and collaborative.
Interactive Reading & Writing
Collaborate to construct meaning and enjoy a story.
Interactive Reading & Writing
Teachers & students create a text together.
Demonstrate important concepts and meanings of text.
In interactive reading & writing