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Antiallergic Drugs

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fatma yossry

on 7 December 2015

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Transcript of Antiallergic Drugs

Antiallergic Drugs
Mast cell stabilizers:
These may be prescribed to prevent allergic reactions. The drugs block the release of histamine. The most commonly used mast cell stabilizer is
sodium cromoglicate
, which is given for allergic conjunctivitis, hay fever, asthma in children, and exercise-induced asthma in adults.
Since these drugs cannot be absorbed when taken orally, they are used topically as eye drops, nasal sprays, or inhalers. The drugs are taken as preventive treatment; they do not relieve symptoms.
Corticosteroids:
These drugs reduce inflammation caused by allergic reactions. They may be included in
skin creams
used to treat a topic eczema and in
nasal sprays
to relieve the symptoms of hay fever.
For severe or persistent allergies, corticosteroids may be given orally or intravenously.
Leukotriene antagonists:
When used with corticosteroids, these drugs help to prevent asthma attacks. They block the action of leukotrienes, chemicals that cause airway inflammation in asthma
Common drugs:
1-Antihistamines
2- Mast cell stabilizers
• Nedocromil sodium
• Sodium cromoglicate
3-Corticosteroids
4- Leukotriene antagonists
• Montelukast
• Zafirlukast
5- Allergen extracts
6- Epinephrine (adrenaline)

Epinephrine (adrenaline):
This drug is used to treat anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction. it reverses the swelling of the throat, narrowing of the airways, and drop in blood pressure that occurs in anaphylaxis. Epinephrine is injected in repeated doses until the condition improves.
If you are at risk of anaphylaxis because of a severe allergy, you should carry a syringe prefilled with epinephrine for emergency treatment.
Decongestants:
Decongestants relieve nasal congestion and thus provide symptomatic relief to allergic rhinitis and hay fever.
They reduce swelling of blood vessels inside your nasal cavity in the upper airway to make breathing easier. However, use of decongestants for more than
7 days
can lead to rebound congestion and therefore they are not recommended to be used regularly or for long term. Examples of commonly used decongestants include
pseudoephedrine
and
phenylephrine
.
Decongestants side effect:
• Rise in blood pressure, heart rate
• Increased alertness which may lead to difficulty in falling asleep if taken during the latter part of the day.


Corticosteroids side effect:
• Sodium and water retention, high blood pressure
• Cushing’s syndrome (typical features include Moon face, abdominal distension)
• Stomach upset
• Increased susceptibility to infections
• Osteoporosis when used long term

Antihistamines:
General advice on taking anti-allergy medicines:
Recent advances in the development
of anti-allergic drugs.
Allergen extracts:
Substances that can cause allergic reactions, such as bee venom or grass pollen, are called allergens. Tiny amounts of an allergen may be used to desensitize a person who has a severe allergy to that substance. The treatment is usually given as a series of weekly injections containing gradually increasing doses. Treatment may last for several months. Allergen extracts can themselves cause life-threatening allergic reactions and are given only where emergency treatment is available.

they are drugs used to prevent and treat allergic conditions and allergic reactions.
These drugs are most commonly used to relieve the symptoms of hay fever, to treat allergic rashes such as urticaria, and to relieve itching due to insect bites. They block the action of histamine, a chemical that is released by the body in an allergic reaction.
thank you
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