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A.P. Chemistry Final Project

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Sarah McIntyre

on 23 May 2013

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Transcript of A.P. Chemistry Final Project

A.P. Chemistry Final Project Sarah McIntyre Supplement Chemistry What are antibiotics in foods? Chemicals used? Why is this a problem? Vitamins Chemicals involved? What is Supplement Chemistry? How does one become a pharmacist? What do pharmacists do? What is a pharmacist? Pharmacists How do pharmacists use chemistry? Dietary supplements are products that
are intended to supplement the diet
contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins; minerals; herbs or other botanicals; amino acids; and other substances)
are intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid
must be labeled as a dietary supplement.
Includes performance shakes and nutrient supplement shakes Most vitamins in supplements are:
pertroleum extracts
coal tar derivatives
chemically processed sugars
processed fish oils
acids and industrial chemicals such as formaldehyde Interested in this? What careers may lead you to research and discovery in these ideas?
Biotechnology career:
uses technology to help improve life
research and development
Nutritionists:
may help determine how much of one vitamin you may need more than another Chemical compounds of Vitamins:

Vitamin C:
(5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (non-preferred name)

Vitamin A:
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl)nona-2,4,6, 8-tetraen-1-ol Medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria.
Used to treat infections caused by bacteria.
Needed when our immune system can no longer fight off an infection In fish:
Chorionic gonadotropin, hormone
Cattle:
muscle-building androgens, usually testosterone surrogates
Other Animals:
Progestins -freeing up resources that would have gone into the reproductive cycle.
Estrogens -shuts down a female's estrus cycle Antibiotics:
Residues of these antibiotics travel with seafood through the entire life of the fish.
Chloramphenicol, penicillin and other drugs are used in the production process.
Contaminated seafood can cause unexpected allergic reactions
Increased antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens.
Hormones
t can increase the risk of multiple pregnancy
premature puberty in young children Healthcare professionals
Dispense prescription medications to patients
Offer advice on safe use of medications
Pharmacists are concered with not only how the chemical molecules interact with eachother as well as how they affect the body. Most medical compounds are small organic molecules like aspirin or ethanol, or larger biological molecules, mostly proteins like insulin or prolactin. some drugs might cause the body to produce an enzyme that breaks down another drug the patient might be taking Compounding
Preperation
mixing
assembling
packaging
labeling High School graduate or Pass General Education Development exam. Bachelor of science from a 4 year university
Pre-Pharmacy Program
At least two years of pre-pharmacy coursework Take the PCAT or the Pharmacy College Admission Test
Not all Colleges require this, but it is suggested. Obtain a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree from an accredited pharmacy school Industries with the highest concentration of employment Industry Employee's hired Get licensed
Required to have a license to practice pharmacy in the United States
Pass the NAPLEX (North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination) Get a Job
Variety of settings
Usually work 40 hour weeks
Must have strong communication skills
Should have strong managerial skills. Some common organic chemicals that are used by pharmacists are:
Duloxetine hydrochloride that is used in the drug Cymbalta.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is used in small concentrations in over the counter drugs like Tylenol as a fever reducer
Hydrocodone compounded with acetaminophen Oranigic Structure of the Drug Lunesta
(+)-(5S)-6-(5chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b] pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1carboxylate Organic structure of Hydrocodone:
4,5a-Epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one http://l.yimg.com/bt/api/res/1.2/ezOL73aHSnq7EDM_I6TqDg--/YXBwaWQ9eW5ld3M7Y2g9MzYwO2NyPTE7Y3c9NjQwO2R4PTA7ZHk9MDtmaT11bGNyb3A7aD0zNTU7cT04NTt3PTYzMA--/http://media.zenfs.com/en_us/gma/us.abcnews.go.com/zp_clinical_specialties_compounding_pharmacy_ll_130320_wmain.jpg http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pharmacy/images/Courseimages/MPharm http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pharmacy/images/Courseimages/MPharm http://www.ucl.ac.uk/pharmacy/images/Courseimages/MPharm dispense medications
counsel patients on medication use
advise physicians about medication therapy
provide information on medical equiptment
complete 3rd party insurance forms
drug therapy
administering vaccinations
oversee students
research for pharmaceutical manufacturers
have good social skills
maintain good organization Average Salary?
$111,570 per year (2010)
$53.64 per hour (2010) Creatine:
What is it? What's in it?
Dicyandiamide
breaks down into hydrogen cyanide gas when exposed to a strong acid
Dihydrotriazine
Possibly toxic
toxicity and chemical knowledge of substance is limited
Sodium
Dehydration http://www.cheapdiscountsupplements.com/product_images/uploaded_images/atp_diagram.jpg Recomended dietary intake Vitamin D mg/day http://chemistry.about.com/od/demonstrationsexperiments/ss/vitctitration.htm Antibiotics/Hormones in foods http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/All-trans-Retinol2.svg Hormones in foods? Used to help organisms reproduce in harsh environments in captivity These both are seen most often in the case of fish. http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/p480x480/934814_10151616971235446_738861159_n.png http://perfectbodyrx.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/factory-farm-pigs.jpg Careers Associated? Biotechnology:
want to improve animals and to develop microorganisms for specific agricultural uses. http://marshanunleymd.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/estrogen.gif Pharmacist
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Pharmacists.htmhttp://careerplanning.about.com/od/occupations/p/pharmacist.htmhttp://questions.sci-toys.com/node/179http://money.usnews.com/careers/best-jobs/pharmacisthttp://explorehealthcareers.org/en/Career/14/Pharmacist
http://www.wikihow.com/Become-a-Pharmacisthttp://www.pharmacist.com/sites/default/files/files/Allen_%20Chap_%201_Art,%20Science%20and%20Technology%20of%20Pharmaceutical%20Compounding,%204e.pdfhttp://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291051.htm]http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7848242http://www.rxlist.com/lunesta-drug.htmhttp://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Pharmacists.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_selling_pharmaceutical_productshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocodone Supplemental Chemistry
http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Vitamin
http://chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Dietary_supplement
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie50293a032
http://www.muscleandstrength.com/articles/creatine-the-chemistry-behind-the-supplement.html
http://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/DS_WhatYouNeedToKnow.aspx
http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/vitamin-d/
http://www.doctorsresearch.com/articles4.html
http://www.cheapdiscountsupplements.com/product_images/uploaded_images/atp_diagram.jpg
http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/willbrink11.htm
http://www.scientificpsychic.com/health/vitamins.html
http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/DietarySupplements-HealthProfessional/antibiotics/hormo Antibiotics/hormones in foods
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-Ar/Antibiotics.html
http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Topical_antibiotic
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules/special_issues/chemistry_of_antibiotics
http://www.hampsteadscience.ac.uk/TheMedicinalChemistryofAntibiotics.pdf
http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/safer-food-healthier-you
http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/fish/fishy-business/antibiotics-and-growth-hormones-in-feed/
http://sphotos-g.ak.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/p480x480/934814_10151616971235446_738861159_n.png
http://perfectbodyrx.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/factory-farm-pigs.jpg
http://www.aboutbioscience.org/topics/animalbiotechnology
http://www.phschool.com/science/science_news/articles/hormones_beef.html
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php
http://marshanunleymd.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/estrogen.gif
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=rangebeefcowsymp
Full transcript