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Imperialism in Egypt
Transcript of Imperialism in Egypt
During the mid-nineteenth century, the country of Egypt, found in the north eastern region of Africa in the Nile Valley, was vulnerable to imperial rule by Western powers, enabling a series of violent upheavals, a devastating internal debt, and overall reformation in the aspects of modernization and industrialization, ultimately causing a corrupt and dismantled society.
By Jenna Fong, Makenna Kincheloe, & Kevin Louie
Reasons for Imperialism
The British and French were the two major powers that colonized Egypt
Reasons for colonization:
Competition among European powers for land in Africa
Cotton-primary cash crops
Natural resources and profits
Desire to spread Western institutions
Arabic Republic of Egypt
Gift of the Nile
The Effects of Imperialism
Ahmad Revolt (1881-1882)
Led by Ahmad Urabi against the Egyptian ruler, Khedive Tewfik
Defeat of Urabi's army on Sept. 13, 1882 at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir by the British
Mahdist War 1881-1899
Colonial War- began by actions of Muhammad Ahmad
Mahdist Sudanese vs Egyptians (and later the British)
Long conflict finally ended with the decisive victory of the British and Egyptians at the battle of Umm Diwaykarat
Reforms in Modernization & Industrialization
Reforms made from Muhammad Ali
established public educational system
sponsored small industrial sector
Personal spending by Ismail
Ferdinand de Lesseps signed the contract to construct the canal
Completed in 1869 under Ismail
Huge economic impacts
Used to trade goods at an astonishing pace
Reduced sailing time from Europe to Asia
Artificial waterway connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea
Negative impacts- internal debt from the construction, many casualties, and foreign financial support from the debt which caused resentment
Egypt was imperialized by...
10,000 B.C.E.- 525 B.C.E.
Polytheistic- sun god Ra
Basin irrigation- cotton cash crop
Pharoahs and priests- top of social class
1250-1798 under Mamluks and Ottomans
Still agriculturally based
Cotton, grains, rice
Economic profit and wealth (bullion/silver)
More territory & expansion of nation
The Treatment of People
Egyptians inferior to Europeans
Used as workers and slaves for low pay
Indigenous population remained in lower classes
Form of Imperialism?
Indirect Rule (Britain)
Egyptian khedives remained in power
All major decisions made by the British
Other Significant Figures
Mehmet Muhammad Ali
Ferdinand de Lesseps
Republic government with a president elected by the people every six years; bicameral parliament
Economy depends on exports of petroleum and natural gas, Suez Canal tolls, and tourism
Loss of land due to windblown
Going through da Nile searching for Egypt's past...
entered Egypt for the same reasons as Britain but had a short reign(1798-1801) that prevented them from gaining any real economic benefit
British chased them out
Nationalistic views opposing European colonization
sparked by foreign resentment
Despite this, rulers such as Muhammad Ali and Ismail, promoted western institutions and accepted modernization/westernization
Gained independence in 1922
Protectorate abolished but British influence was still relevant
Even though Egypt was independent, some things stayed the same:
Security of british communications
Protection of foreign interests
Status of Sudan
The expenses of the Suez Canal
What did the imperialized people do about it?
The rise of imperialistic pressures during the mid-nineteenth century led to violent upheavals, internal debt, and reforms in modernization as well as industrialization, overall causing a corrupt and dismantled society being stripped of its sovereignty. Due to the fact that the region was constantly put under foreign rule, Egypt's capability to stand on its own is questionable and is being challenged today.