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Chapter 26 - World War I and Russian Revolution
Transcript of Chapter 26 - World War I and Russian Revolution
A. Stalemate on the Western Front
•Germany was forced to fight a two front war:•France - western front
•Russia - eastern front
•Stalemate - a deadlock, or tie, where neither side gains significant territory
•No mans land
•Very little movement forward
I. THE GREAT WAR BEGINS
WORLD WAR I AND THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
III. WINNING THE WAR
A. Total War
•Total war - a nation directs all its resources
to help with the war effort
Increased taxes – revenue helps pay for costs of war
Borrowed money from other countries
Rationed food and gas
•Naval blockade - British stopped the
shipment of goods in/out of Germany
•Germany responded with a blockade on England
•Unrestricted submarine warfare
•Sinking of the Lusitania
•Propaganda - spreading ideas to promote a cause or damage another
GOAL: To make your side look good, or make the other side look bad
Women began to take men’s jobs and help as nurses
IV. MAKING PEACE
A. Costs of War
•1918 Flu pandemic - flu spread quickly over a large area (20 million dead worldwide in just a few months)
Financial toll -
•Homes, factories, roads destroyed throughout Europe
•High cost to repair/replace/fix damages - would burden the world
•Reparations - payments for damages caused by the war, typically paid by the losers of the war
The Central Powers, who viewed the Armistice as a cease-fire instead of a surrender, looked for scapegoats on whom to blame their defeat.
Under the stress of the war, governments collapsed in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
Political radicals dreamed of building a new social order out of the chaos - outsiders feared the spread of bolshevism, later called communism.
V. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
C. Alliances Kick In
•Germany gives full support to Austria-Hungary
•Russia backs Serbia due to Pan-Slavism (the belief that all Slavic people shared a common nationality)
•Russia mobilizes troops for war
•Germany declares war on Russia
•France supported Russia, so Germany declares war on France
•Germany invades neutral Belgium on way to France (made France mad...!)
Schlieffen Plan - attack France quick then fight Russia (avoid a two front war)
England declares war on Germany (allies with France)
All of these steps happened so fast there was no time for diplomatic negotiations...
A. Background Causes (M.A.I.N.)
•Militarism - Glorification of the military
Arms race….competition between countries to build up military power
Both England and Germany had strong navy
•Alliances - “Friendships” between countries.
Formed because of fear and jealousy
Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
(Also known as the Central Powers)
Triple Entente - France, Great Britain, Russia
(Also known as the Allied Powers)
•Imperialism - Competition between countries over colonies
New Markets - African Empires
Raw Materials - Needed for industrialization
•Nationalism - Pride and loyalty to your country
Regional/Border conflicts - Who was the better country?!
Germany and France fought over Alsace Lorraine - France was still bitter over the loss of the Franco-Prussian War (wanted that land back) and Germany knew that.
Multinational Empires - Austria-Hungary and Ottoman empire feared nationalism would break them apart - They were at the end of their reign...!
B. The Powder Keg
•1914 - Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary visits Sarajevo in Bosnia
•Austria-Hungary had ruled Bosnia, Serbia, and other Balkan countries
•Serbian nationalists (Black Hand) upset with this visit
•Archduke assassinated by Gavril Princip
•Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum…
•Hand over Princip or else……WAR! Would they?!
•July 28, 1914 - Austria declares war on Serbia
Due to alliances, the war escalates quickly, engulfing much of Europe in a matter of months!
• Trench warfare
• Rapid fire machine gun
• Long range artillery
• Mustard Gas
• Submarines (u boats)
C. War Spreads
• Russia was poorly equipped for war
• Increased tensions and conflict over Balkan countries
• Italy switches sides and declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
• Ottoman Empire joins the Central Powers
• Fighting over the Dardanelles
B. Change in Morale
• By 1917 the British were on the verge of bankruptcy - the longer the war lasts, the harder it is to gather supplies and soldiers.
• In Russia, military defeats caused discontent with the Tsar
• 1917 - Revolution to remove the Tsar - it was welcomed by the Allies at first, hoping they would institute a democracy (we'll learn more in section 5)
• In 1918, Lenin signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany - this pulled Russia out of the war
• Central Powers can now shift forces to Western front
C. US Declares War
•The United States joins WWI in 1917
“Keep the world safe for democracy” - Woodrow Wilson
Attack on Lusitania in 1915
Zimmerman telegram – Message to Mexico from Germany to join the war against the US and get land in return
•“A war to end all wars” “The Great War”
•Fourteen Points - Wilson's plan to win the war and maintain peace
Freedom of the seas
Reduction of arms
No secret treaties
Self-determination - right for a country to choose its own government
League of Nations
•Complete shift in momentum when the US enters the war - Refreshing for the Allies
Germans made one last push - Pushed the Allies back 40 miles but exhausted their forces
They were pushed back out of France. They could no longer win the war and they knew it!
Kaiser William II stepped down in November 1918, after hunger revolts and major military losses. The war was now over!
•War ends on Armistice Day - November 11, 1918 11:00 AM
Now, the fate of the Germans was in the hands of the Allies...!
B. Paris Peace Conference
•Allies meet to discuss plans for a post-war Europe - The "Big Three" (plus one)
•Woodrow Wilson - USA
•David Lloyd George - England
•George Clemenceau - France (remember…..wants a weak Germany!)
•Vittorio Orlando - Italy (wants land from Austria that was guaranteed through secret agreements)
•Self-determination - allowing new countries to choose their form of government - secret agreements violated self-determination
•Collective security - a group of nations can act as one to preserve peace - Wilson's League of Nations
C. Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of Versailles - official peace settlement after WWI
Germany had to take blame for WWI
$30 BILLION in reparations - including pensions for Allied widows - can hurt their already damaged economy.
Limited the size of Germany military
Alsace Lorraine given back to France
Removed hundreds of square miles of territory from eastern and western Germany
Germany loses overseas colonies
• Germany was forced to sign treaty
• Germany was not happy and resented the Treaty of Versailles
D. Outcomes of the Peace Settlements
• Poland gains independence
• Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia gain independence from Russia
• Hapsburg empire divided - 3 Republics created: Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungary
• Yugoslavia created (dominated by Serbs)
• Mandate system - many territories controlled by western powers - disliked by many because they thought peace would bring an end to imperial rule
These territories were to be held until the said country could stand on its own
• League of Nations - over 40 nations promised to negotiate a settlement before declaring war.
Not ratified by US Senate because they didn't want to be obligated to fight in future wars
Without the USA, the League of Nations had no power outside its own members and it would later prove that it would not stop a war.
It was the first international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and advancing the interests of all people!
A. March Revolution
• Russia slow to industrialize
• Large peasant population
• Tsar Nicholas II was not willing to make reforms
Failed to solve Russia's basic political, economic, and social problems. He blocked attempts to limit his control.
• WWI strained Russia’s resources - War costs MONEY!!!
• Nicholas II goes to war - went to the front to take personal charge - he was incompetent and it showed to his people.
• Wife Alexandra in charge while at war - not cool!!!
• Monk Rasputin advised Alexandra and continued to weaken Russia
• Tsar Nicholas forced to abdicate (give up title) after protestors marched and troops refused to fire on them.
• Provisional government established - Soviets began setting up a democratic government but the Bolsheviks took control, lead by Lenin.
B. Lenin and the Bolsheviks
• V.I. Lenin was influenced by Karl Marx
• Arrested, sent to Siberia, then went into exile for spreading Marxist ideas
• Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian society
• Called for a small elite group to control the country - "dictatorship of the proletariat"
• After the March Revolution, Lenin returned to Russia
• Came up with the word Bolsheviks - means "majority"
Upon returning to Russia, he took a special train to the Russian frontier and greeted a crowd of exiles and activist with the cry "Long live the world-wide Socialist revolution."
C. November Revolution
• Lenin and Leon Trotsky supported revolution in Russia
• “Peace, Land, Bread” - people loved all these things!
• November Revolution of 1917 - Bolsheviks remove the provisional government and end Russian involvement in WWI
• Moscow becomes the new capital (Kremlin)
• “We shall now occupy ourselves in Russia in building up a proletarian socialist state” declared Lenin
Ended private ownership of land and gave land to peasants. Workers were given control of factories and mines
• New flag with hammer (workers) and sickle (peasants)
Millions had thought they had at last gained control over their own lives, but soon the Bolsheviks, later renamed Communists, would soon become their new masters...
D. Civil War
• 1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ends Russia’s involvement in WWI
• Civil war erupts
• “Reds” - Communists VS. “Whites” - Supporters of the Tsar
• Allies help the Whites
• Eventually, the Reds pushed back the Whites and took control of Russia
E. Communist Soviet Union
1922 - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, aka Soviet Union - Led by Lenin
Constitution and the right to vote - seemed both democratic and socialist
All political power, resources, and means of production in the hands of the workers
Supreme Soviet - elected legislature
Multinational state made up of European and Asian peoples - theoretically, all members shared equal rights.
In reality, a small group of government officials made all decisions
New Economic Policy - small private ownership, gov't control of large industry, peasants gained some land
Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy - allowed some capitalist ventures but kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries.
Lenin's compromise with capitalism helped the economy recover and ended armed resistance to the gov't.
1. List the four background causes of WWI
2. Who was assassinated?
3. Countries in the Triple Alliance?
4. Countries in the Triple Entente?
5. Why did Russia exit WWI?
6. What was one reason the USA joined WWI?
7. List 3 new technologies used in WWI.
8. What is an ultimatum?
D. Reaction to the War
Before the war, many countries were troubled by domestic problems.
The outbreak of the war brought about temporary relief.
Both sides emphasized that their country was fighting for justice and a better world.
Young men rushed to enlist, cheered on by women and their elders - it seemed like an exciting adventure.
Not everyone was as optimistic. Many people feared this would be a great war that the world may never be able to come out of...
Hammer and sickle symbolized union between workers and peasants.
1924 - Joseph Stalin takes control after Lenin's death - Makes the Soviet Union a pure communist state.
When Lenin died, a power struggle ensued - Trotsky and Stalin were the main contenders.
Eventually, Stalin isolated Trotsky within the party and stripped him of his
Within the years that followed, Stalin used ruthless measures to win dictatorial power.