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Lie detection

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Eliza Zimmerman

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of Lie detection

Lie Detection
This is an analog polygraph.
Today, most polygargh test are administered with digital equipment.
William Moulton Marston first invented the polygraph.
Polygraph is another word for lie detector.
He also invented the comic strip Wonder Woman.
According to Marston’s son, it was his mother Elizabeth, Marston’s wife, who suggested to him that when she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb. Even though Elizabeth is not listed as one of William Marston's collaborator other collaborators often referred directly or indirectly to her work on deception.
His wife, Elizabeth Holloway Marston and Olive Byrne were the inspiration for Wonder Woman.
An analog polygraph is a lie detector that measures involuntary reactions and the physical responses causing the polygraph's needles to scratch lines onto a roll of paper.
A polygraph is made of-

Pneumographs- a device that records respiratory movements

Blood pressure cuff- measures blood pressure and heart rate

Electro-dermal activity- measures the sweat on your finger tips.
A micro-expression is a brief, involuntary facial expression shown on the face.
Micro-expressions were first discovered by Haggard and Isaacs in the 1960s.
A micro-expression can appear then disappear off the face in a fraction of a second.
The seven groups of micro-expression are anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, surprise and contempt.
William Condon was a pioneer of micro-expressions. He studied hours of tapes in the 1960s to discover micro-expressions.
Paul Ekman was born in 1934 and went to the University of Chicago and New York University. He began to research facial expression and body movement in 1957. He has appeared on 48 Hours, Dateline, Good Morning America, 20/20, Larry King, Oprah, Johnny Carson and many other TV programs. He also received a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health 6 times for his study on micro-expressions.
Paul Ekmans research is the inspiration of the TV series "Lie to Me".
Some people are naturals at seeing micro-expressions; Ekman calls these people "truth wizards.
Hand Shaking
This mostly started in ancient Greece or the Middle East, where people have long shook hands as a way of making a pledge. This is the thought to be the reason that at wedding ceremony, the bride and groom are asked to join hands as they recite their vows to one another.
In Russia, the tradition of handshaking is more a form of male competition than intimate union. Hand shaking there is a little like arm wrestling in America.

The earliest handshakes may have been more practical than symbolic. Such as if people from different tribes were encountering each other they might open their hands to show that they do not have any weapons.
Raising an Eyebrow
By : Eliza Zimmerman
Eye brow rising has its roots in biology not a social custom. Just as dogs raise their ears and horses flare their nostrils when they are most alert, human beings - who depend on sight more than sound or smell - tend to raise our eyebrows when we are surprised or suddenly called to attention. Whenever our eyebrows raise our eye also dilate. Some scientists believe that this happens so we can get a better view of what caught our attention.
Winking is an indication of a private understanding, a secret, or a collusion of sorts. Desmond Morris calls the wink a "directional eye closure." by this he means that the quickly closed and then opened eye is communicating a "secret aimed only at the person being looked at.
Shrugging is the opposite of a strong posture. Instead of standing with shoulders squared, head upright, fists clenched, the shrugging person hunches the shoulders, tilts the head, and turns opened hands outward. The message is one of helplessness and retreat.
Why do we cry? Charles Darwin was puzzled by this. While he admitted that crying was a useful way for babies to get the attention of their care givers, he was never able to find an evolutionary usefulness for crying, or for tears. Finally, he hypothesized that eventually humans would no longer cry.
Lie Detection
A liar will use your words to make answer a question. When asked, “Did you eat the last cookie?” The liar answers, “No, I did not eat the last cookie.”
A liar does not always avoid eye contact. Humans naturally break eye contact and look upwards when remembering something.
When someone is faking a smile only the muscle around their mouths will move.
An innocent person will often go on the offensive when a liar will get deffensive.
A liar is uncomfortable facing his questioner/accuser and may turn his head or body away.
A liar might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup, etc.) between themselves and you.
If you ask someone to imagine
something visually their eyes
will move up and to the left.
If you ask someone to visually
remember something their eyes will
move up and to the right.
If you ask someone to
construct a sound their
eyes will move to the left.
If you ask someone to remember a
sound their eyes will move to the right.
If you ask some to recall
a smell, feeling or taste their
eyes move down and to the left.
When someone talks to themselves
they will look down to the right.
Looking straight ahead or with eyes that are unmoving is considered a sign of visual accessing.
A left handed person would have the opposite eye movements.
A statement with a contraction is more likely to be truthful: “I didn't do it” instead of “I did not do it”.
Liars' Gestures/expressions don’t match the verbal statement, such as frowning when saying “I love you.”
The guilty person may speak more than natural, adding unnecessary details to convince you... they are not comfortable with silence or pauses in the conversation.
A liar may leave out pronouns and speak in a monotonous tone.
When a truthful statement is made the pronoun is emphasized as much or more than the rest of the words in a statement.
A liar’s sentences will likely be muddled rather than emphasized.
Steven Van
Body Language
7% of communication is verbal context 38% is how you speak and 55% is body language.

The first impression we make on others starts not when we first open our mouth, but with our posture, breathing, appearance, and movement.
Hurry up, because when you first meet someone you have four seconds to make a good first impression.
Human produce an estimated amount of 700,000 signs.
Cultural differences in body language are infinite and change all the time.
There can be several different meanings and out of all our 700,000 different signals there are said to only be six that are universal.
The six that are the same are: happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear.
We can make over 250,000 expressions using our face.
M H Krout identified 5,000 distinct hand gestures.
The three ways we use body language are to replace words, to emphasize words and to show our inner emotion and attitude.
A shaky, uneven voice may suggest that a person is shy, intimidated, or dishonest.

A clear, loud voice may indicate that a person is confident.
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