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Logical Fallacies

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by

Mike Wilson

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi
Ad Hominem
:marked by or being an attack on an opponent's character rather than by an answer to the contentions made
: uses the manipulation of the recipient's emotions, rather than valid logic, to win an argument.
Bandwagon
:adopting a popular point of view for the primary purpose of recognition and/or acceptance by others.
False Dilemma
:involving a situation in which limited alternatives are considered, when in fact there is at least one additional option.
Appeal to the people
:concluding a proposition to be true because many or most people believe it. "Ad populum"
Logical Fallacies
Appeal to Emotions
"If many believe so, it is so"
Red Herring
:a purposeful change in topic to distract from the original topic.
False cause
:arguing that two events that are correlated are assumed to have a causal connection.
Hasty Generalization
:reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence—essentially making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables
In other words, one event causes the other. This was one of the more common fallacies committed by ancient ancestors. During the last full moon, your dog died. Obviously the full moon killed your dog.
:when it is assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is older, traditional, or "always has been done."
Scare Tactic
: a strategy using fear to influence the public's reaction
"this is right because we've always done it this way."
Traditional Wisdom
Authority
The absurd
99 Billion served?
I want to eat there!
If everyone's doing it, I should too
The latest and greatest social media. The target audience is any digital citizen.
We attack the person and not the argument.
Pathos: we manipulate people's emotion's to purchase certain products
Scare tactic
Slow down: Scare tactic, slow down or you could kill a child
Purchase life insurance because you could die unexpectedly
Distraction technique
This has nothing to do with the topic at hand
Dentist: Authority Figure we trust
"Clinically proven 98%"
If you chew this gum: hot girls will makeout with you!
They're both number's so they must be the same!
"Everybody's doing it, picking there nose and chewing it!"
"Fifty million Elvis fans can't be wrong"
Absurd
Sad music
Underdog
Failure
Disappointment
Persevere
Commitment
People believed the world was flat, if you traveled to the end of it you'd fall off
We've always done it this way
The target audience is anyone who purchases cable. They manipulate our emotions by creating a false sense of dislike for there competitor by using puppies.
Misdirecting our attention away from the candidates abilities and focusing them towards his physical features that have no relevance towards the issue.
Ethos
Ethos
Pathos
Reciprocity
Reciprocity: a social obligation is implied, "guilt tripped"
Pathos
The sad music creates an emotion, we like the underdog and root for them. Overcoming adversity and persevering.
Everyboody want's coke because everyone else want's it
The target audience is anyone who drinks soft drinks.
The message is to drink coke because everyone want's to drink coke, so should we.
Fantasy
We should participate in social media because everyone is participating and we could miss out on something.
The target audience is not only to Americans but to anyone in the country.
The message only gives you two choices, when in actuality there are more.
The target audience is american citizens who don't vote.
The message is stressing how important voting is.
If everyone jumps off a bridge, should you? - ofcourse
Consensus
The target audience is young adults who purchase chewing gum.
Pathos
SEX
SEX
Target audience is everyone who brushes there teeth. The message is to purchase this toothpaste over other brands because of these benefits
A survey of two people reflects the views of many. Not accurate.
This can unfortunately sway people towards an unhealthy lifestyle by suggesting all body builders use steroids.
Ethos
The target audience is American citizens. The message is that the government is taking action to control violence by having gun control.
The target audience is everyone, to convince us to purchase life insurance. The message is: Anyone can die at any time, the future is unknown.
Pathos
Pathos
Pathos
The target audience is to drivers.
The message is to slow down, death is less likely to occur if you decrease your speed.
Pathos
Traditional Wisdom: the way it was in the beginning it now and ever shall be:
The target audience is everyone. The message is that we have always done it this way so we should continue to do it this way.
Reciprocity, Scarcity, Authority, Consistency,Liking,Consensus
SEX
ANNOYING JINGLE
THE ABSURD
FANTASY
TESTIMONIAL
ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS
Full transcript