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Transcript of Sponges
Images from Shutterstock.com Sponges Structure and Function The sponges body is unique that it is built around a system of water canals.
The sponge is filled with tiny holes called ostia.
Through ostia water flows into a spacial cavity called a spongocoel and exits through the osculum.
Have specialized cells instead of tissue to do specific functions.
The sponge is covered in a layer of cells called pinacocytes for an outer cover.
Nutrition, Digestion, and Reproduction Sponges (Phylum Porifera) Sponges are sessile creatures, meaning they are permanently attached to a solid surface. Sponges are both suspension feeders(meaning they feed on suspended materials) and filter feeders(meaning they filter their food from water)
Wastes leave the sponge through the water currents flowing though it. Sponges are constantly in competition for surfaces with other sessile creatures.
Sponges also play a role in the marine food chain, being food to a few molluscs, sea turtles, and bony fish
Sponges also play an important role in the recycling of Calcium, by burrowing into coral for example and converting the Calcium into a soluble form to return to the seawater.
Sponges also form many symbiotic relationships forming habitats for some species. Ecological Roles They are of all sizes and shapes, which is usually determined by the bottom sediments. Some might be drab in color, but others are brightly colored red, yellow, green, orange, and purple. Sponges reproduce of both sexually and asexually
A form of asexual reproduction is budding when part of the outer cells of the sponge start to develop and grow into a new sponge.
Most sponges are hermaphrodites being able to produce both male and female gametes. The production of gametes occur during photoperiod which is the amount of light and dark in 24 hour period and a change in water temperature. Most sponges during the larval stage spend their time as a amphiblastual which spends time in a water column as a plankton before settling down.