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EC-6 Reading Fluency

Reading Fluency principles for K-6 instruction.


on 3 September 2015

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Transcript of EC-6 Reading Fluency

Reading Fluency Is this really something you can teach? Reading fluency is the ability to read text at a pace that is easily understandable. Fluency can be measured by looking at the speed a student reads. This is often measured in words per minute. However . . . it's more than just that! Research from the National Reading Panel considered rate, accuracy and intonation to be the main components of fluency. Many reputable sources also include comprehension. Some terms reading fluency for Reading rate: This represents the actual speed or words per minute (WPM) an individual can read. Fluent readers are known to read 100 WPM. On average students are expected to achieve this rate by 3rd grade. Text read with an accuracy rate of 95% or higher is considered to be at an independent reading level. At a rate of 90% or higher the text is at an instructional level. Below 90% the text is considered to be frustrational. Intonation: This refers to the pitch and change of pace in a students' reading. Intonation refers to the proper phrasing and chunking of text to allow for increased understanding. Reading Accuracy: The number of words a student reads correctly. An accuracy rate can be calculated by dividing the words read correctly by the total number of words read. What can be done to improve reading fluency? Model Model reading fluently to your students every day. Use Expression! Read text students find interesting and can relate to. Read different types of text. Certain genres provide great opportunities for expression and intonation. Poetry, Plays, Dialogue, Fantasy Use audio books. Give students the opportunity to hear other examples of phrasing and intonation. Can't find any? Don't own any? Look here! http://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/ Level Giving students text that is too difficult will prevent improvement in fluency. Students need assistance in selecting text that is appropriate for them. Help students select text they can read with 95% or higher accuracy (independent reading level). This allows them to develop skills for reading more fluently. Improved fluency will enable them to move to more difficult text with greater comprehension. Accuracy There are many different methods and programs for leveling text. A typical method is to use a benchmark reading passage for assessment beginning with the lowest level. The assessor listens to the student read and marks any mistakes made while reading.
The accuracy rate is calculated. If the accuracy is above 93-95% a comprehension assessment is given.
If the student passes the comprehension they are proficient at that reading level. Students continue testing at the next level until they are no longer able to pass.
The last test they passed is considered their independent reading level. The guided reading system developed by Fountas and Pinnell is a popular system. It assigns letters to each reading level. Reading recovery levels are also popular. Some systems assign letters and numbers. The following chart gives a correlation between some of the more popular book leveling systems. a correlation chart is also available in the EC-6 files or online at http://www.readinga-z.com/correlation-chart.php Most reading curriculum programs provide leveled text for students through second or third grade. Knowing individual student levels will help determine if these texts are truly at their independent reading level. If they are not, the student will need support to be successful with the text. Student may need the support of leveled texts beyond third grade, possibly outside of what is provided in the curriculum. Scholastic has a great tool with various levels provided for many popular books. Try this website to get additional information for books to support your students. http://www.scholastic.com/bookwizard/?esp=CORPHP/ib/////NAV/Teachers/QLinks/BookWizard//// Practice Developing fluency requires lots of practice reading out loud. Students need opportunities to practice reading in non-threatening environments. Forced "round-robin" reading where students read aloud in front of the whole class is discouraged. This causes students anxiety about reading in front of the class and reduces comprehension. Students are concerned about peer perception of their reading ability and not the content of what is being read. Partner or small group reading is a great alternative. Students have support and accountability as they read when they are working with a partner. However, it is far less intimidating than reading in front of the whole class. It is beneficial to teach students how to be good partners as well. Management tip: Teach students partner skills. Teach coaching skills. When a student is not reading they have the job of coaching. As the coach they are helping the other student but not doing the task for them. With explicit instruction and modeling, students can learn to help each other and even cheer for and encourage the good work of their partners and team mates. Repeated reading of a text or passage can also improve fluency. Research shows that repeated reading is most appropriate for students with a reading level between first and third grade. When students reread a passage, they increase their familiarity with the words. With more familiar text they are able to begin developing the skills of tracking their eyes across the page and reading in phrases instead of individual sounds or words. http://www.precisionteachingresource.net/02.pdf Repeated reading can be done as a whole class, small group, or individual exercise. Any time repeated reading is used it should be short passages. Short daily sessions are more effective than inconsistent long sessions. In whole class instruction, the teacher can model progressing from choppy to more fluent reading. Visuals benefit students as they develop this skill. Use a pointer and read the passage pointing at each word. Then go back and begin chunking words together. Use the pointer to draw lines under the phrases instead of pointing to individual words. Finally read fluently, with the same phrasing a passage would be read if spoken. Here's a video example: Note that when first chunking phrases, sight words are combined with new words: Small group or individual student repeated reading can be done with practice passages. This can include different passages the reader can work on over time. Set specific goals with the reader, review that they are to be working on fluency. Model how they should be reading after they have practiced the passage. Use a timer to monitor if they have been able to increase their pace through practice of the passage. If students are simply focusing on trying to read as fast as possible, a different strategy should probably be used. This should be a short passage, something that can be read within 1-2 minutes. With practice, students can learn to monitor and read these passages for each other. Give praise and recognition as students make progress. Remember this should only be done for a few minutes, overuse will cause boredom and frustration by students.
Students enjoy practicing fluency if you can find resources to make it more interesting.
Use readers theater, students will practice rereading for the purpose of presentation
This page has lots of sources for scripts
Use audio or video recording, this will enable them to play back what they have read, giving better insight to how they sound. This also gives motivation to improve reading.
Your library may also have books titled, "I read to you, you read to me" these pages are scripted to have two people reading, making it more enjoyable to practice. Partners can be the same or different reading levels, self-selected, randomly selected, or determined by the instructor. Decide what your goal is in partner reading and which type of partnering will be most effective when planning your lessons. Be sure to consider how students will cooperate with each other when you help them select partners. Add Interest Remember, fluency is like a bridge.
It connects reading ability with comprehension.
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