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Ethnic composition

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Anna Mikulska

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of Ethnic composition

Small ethnic minorities
in post-war Poland Introductrion 3 basic notions ethnographic group National
minority ethnic
minority/group Belarusian Ukrainian Lemkos German Jewish Lithuanian Roma/ Gypsy Russian Slovak Czech Ormian Tartar Karaim Greek
and Macedonian silesians kashubians Mazurians National and Ethnic minorities in Poland in figures permanent residents temporary residents Kashubians
(Kashubes) Less known but not least interesting. National Census of 2002 96 %
I am Pole 1,23%
(471,5 thousand people)
I am not a Pole, I am... 2,03%
(774,9 thousand people)
I don't kow who I am. Hamilton, F.E. Ian and Krystyna Iglicka (eds.). FROM HOMOGENEITY TO MULTICULTURALISM MINORITIS OLD AND NEW IN POLAND. London: SSEES, page: 37. Lemkos Górny Agata, Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska, Magdalena Lesinska and Marek Okólski (eds.). 2010. IMMIGRATION TO POLAND. POLICY, EMPLOYMENT, INTEGRATION. Warszawa: SCHOLAR, page: 30. Sources: Górny Agata, Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska, Magdalena Lesinska and Marek Okólski (eds.). 2010. IMMIGRATION TO POLAND. POLICY, EMPLOYMENT, INTEGRATION. Warszawa: SCHOLAR, page: 39, 40. Before 1989 After 1989 Census Estimate Short figures ethnic policy of Socialist Poland:
Poland as an one-origin country no census researches at all Mid-war period 150 000 Lemkos
in Poland 1944-46 70 thousand
Lemkos left Poland. National census of 2002 5850 people with polish nationality
decelerated their Lemkos nationality (second big Lemkos deportation) (nearly 60-70%
of Lemkos population
before World War II) All Poland Location in Poland Lemkos Territories (called: Łemkowszczyzna) Ethnographers
Lemkos Teritories
Niski and Sądecki Beskid,
Polish- Slovak Border
at 1944. Ethnographers Lemko Teritories
Niski and Sądecki Beskid,
Polish- Slovak Border AT 2002
(include Ukrainian minority). 2, 3, 4 Sources: http://www.beskid-niski.pl/index.php?pos=/lemkowie/historia/spis Current map of Poland:
division into voivodships Distribution Lemkos
in Poland
based on census
of 2002 results. Picture 2 Picture 1 Picture 3 Picture 4 Conclusions, Conclusions, Conclusions… national and ethnic minorities-
not big but diverse part of polish population Be objective! Thank you for your time and listening. Any questions, objections, conclusions? Anna Mikulska
Wiktoria Zawistowska November 1939 Germany and the USSR birateral agreement
on exchange of Ukrainian, Russian and Belarusian
population living in the General Government
of the German population. 1940-41 5 thousand Lemkos
left Poland
and moved out
(freely) Pre-war and
Sceond WW period End of war and
after-war period The tragedy of succeeding migrations (according to agreement
from 1939)
nearly 70 000 Lemkos
moved out to USSR
(by force) 1944-1946 1947 "Vistula action" "Vistula
action" Reality Official version to stamp out
the field units of Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)-
fraction of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists UPA flag Victims of the UPA activity of the Polish communist government
to polonize non- polish minorities 30 thousand Lemkos transferred
to different parts of Poland by force bad social and cultural results "For expelled from Lemkos territories
in the fiftieth anniversary of the Vistula Action" located in different cities and villages only one family in one village no contact with former neighbors and friends not allowed to find themselves and
creating a new community afraid to admit to their origin because of…
local propaganda Lemkos treated as a fraction of Ukrainian nation
which were hated after UPA activity. Tragic Short history view After- war period 1956 Critical opinions on the Vistula action few thousands Lemks come back
to their former houses 4th Juny 1989 Fall of communism in Poland democratization of life in Poland It was not finished the negative
results of deportations but at least
it created a new situation for all
the minorities in Poland. 27th July 1949 State;s decree: state's taking
possessions of their owners Lemkos fatherlands went to
the hands of polish settlers,
became the object of collectivization
or they constituted the area of none's land Only shrines in the middle of nowhere bear witness that
50 years ago, there were once great and small villages Lemko nation
as an separate
east-Europe nation normadic tribes from the present Romania whereof contemporary
Lemkos come from theory promoted by
Polish ethnologist,
f. e. Kazimierz
Dobrowolski shows a distinct character
of Lemkos when compared
them with other groups
of Ruthanian mountaineers
(f.e. Hucules and Bojks) Lemkos as fraction
of Ukrainian nation developed first of all
by Ukrainian ethnographers
and historians Lemkos origin. The “Wallachian trace” stresses common
roots of all Ruthenians derive Lemkos origins
from White Croatians
who lived until 7th
century in the Upper
Vistula river-basin Lemkos as an separate,
distinct character towards
Ukrainian people Lemko
separatism shepherd's people of Wallachian origins
migrated to Lemkos territory and around areas in the 14th and 15th century a shepherd :) The Chech Enclave in Poland:
The Interethnic Relations in Local Community of Zelów. The town of Zelów is situated in the heart of Poland, 40 km from Łódź and 80 km north of Częstochowa and according to census from 2008 has 8 003 inhabitants. What makes Zelów different from other ethnic enclaves in Poland? 1.The group of native people defines itself as Czechs
2.Represents denomination different form dominant Catholic religion - they are mostly members of Calvinist church which gathers the smallest number of believers out of all main Western Christian denominations in Poland This two factors Chechness and Calvinism were two main streams which had had an impact of everyday life in Zelów inhabitants from first days of emigrants settlement which had started from 1803 year to the mass exodus of Bohemian population after the Second World War. What is more,
the group of people of Czech origin
that remained in the town and their followers are still preserving religious
and national traditions of their ancestor. The Bohemians who were
Protestant had to leave their
own country because of religious prosecution
in the middle of 18th century. Firstly, they went to
Silesia then a some newcomers from Strzelin together with other emigrants from Opole and Syców region decided to move to new place. Zelów located north from their first Silesian farms appeared
to be a proper place for re-bulid bases of their
social, economic and what is the most important,
religious life in their own territory. Zelów has ca. 8 000 citizens today.
People with Czech origin are ethnic minority
in the town where Polish population is dominant. It may be estimated that only 5% of inhabitants have Bohemian roots. It means that the ethnic group only consists of about 400 – 450 members but inhabitants with Czech
origin play important role in the social
organization of Zelów. In 1817 they entered Calvinist Church. The ethnic and religious structure of Zelów was changed during the Second World War. In 1803, History of the Settlement a group of Czechs settled down in Zelów buying the from a Polish owner. The strong links between
the national identification
and the religious beliefs existed
in the population of the town
for many years. National heroes Jan Hus and Jan Amos Komensky – their lives are repleted with a great number of examples in which concern for religious matter mingles with fulfillment of national aspirations. The Czech language which in fact is a particular dialect, differs considerably from the standard version of Czech language; its characteristic features are Polish accent and borrowings. – the native speakers of this system of communication maintain that they speak “Zelowian”, stressing in this way exceptional nature of their speech. Jan Hus is the person whose martyrs’s
death I ceremonially remembered in Zelów
church and who is recognized as a spiritual
founder of this community. The national Identity of Czechs in Zelów Strong memory about
their ancestors. For Czechs residents of central Poland the sacred remains the crucial point of national references. Everyday prayers are said in Czech, the use of national language applies also to the reading of the Bible. The choir in the church can read the text and notes of religious songs from the old Czech songbook. There are many grave stones
on Zelów Protestant cementary where epitaphs in Czech
anguage had been inscribed. The Interethnic relations 1. The inhabitants of Zelów claims that the population of the town consist of Poles, Czechs and Germans.

2.The image of national structure is connected with religious congregations, which are active in the local community, there are strong links between those two systems and the hierarchy in the power: a) “The Czech church” – Calvinist church
b) “the Polish church” – The Catholic Church
c) “The German church” – Lutherian Church 3. There are no places to be distinguished which would be regarded as enclosed areas, isolated
and inhabited by only one ethnic group.

4. The economic problem – unemployment (40% can’t find a job)
5. PHARE program

6. The negative image of Czechs, according the survey, is framed by such features of character as: a) Being unfriendly towards Poles
b) Conceitedness
c) Isolation
d) Religion outsider 7. Conclusions a) The process of assimilation
b) The loss of the national character of the Calvinist Church
c) The group of “Zelowian Czechs” The curiosity 18th & 19th
century Austrian Empire as a external political centre
of Lemkos territories double arrays (in Lemko and Polish) in Bielanka language specified territory
(Lemkos territories) religion Fundamental features Culture
and traditions cultural
separateness rural community bilingual group their own ethnolect (Lemkos language vel. Ruthenian language). Polish Cyrillic alphabet bi-religious community Greek Catholic Orthodox Church traditional costumes... Lemko folk crafts Lemko
Tradittional music Folk culture Traditional Lemkos wedding song “Saga krasy” Group of people in Lemko costumes. Lemko paskha special Easter Cheese ...and pysanky! :) Easter egg (pysanky) with traditional Lemko patterns Head covering [FatselykФацелик]
Eastern Lemkos Territories.
Costume piece - not embroidered,
painted with dimensional paint Womans dance costume ...some Easter food... Necklace.
Lemko patterns NIKIFOR The famous Lemkos painter representative
of primitivism Nikifor’s Museum in Krynica. Nikifor, Noah’s Ark Lemko
Activity Nimble grandfather (Chyża pradziadka) - open-air museum in Zyndranowa Lemkos Museum in Olchowiec Lemkos Culture
Festival Watra in Zdynia The doors to places
that no longer exists Radocyna at 1945 (Dmytro Solynko). The door to
Radocyna village Remains of cemetery in Lipna The door to Czarne village and some students of
AGH-UST at science camp :) The Orthodox Church Greek Catholic Church contentious beliefs rite Differences in the faith (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Roman Catholic
Church Latin rite supremacy of
the Pope / Vatican yes yes no Byzantine (Greek)
rite Byzantine (Greek)
rite belief in purgatory,
belief in the eternal existence of hell,
the Holy Spirit comes from God the Father and the Son of God belief in purgatory,
belief in the eternal existence of hell,
the Holy Spirit comes from God the Father and the Son of God not belief in purgatory
hell will be destroyed by God in the World End
The Holy Spirit comes only from God the Father Lemko wooden Greek Catholic church
autonomy of religious
structures for Greek Catholics
The State Fund of Land became a formal disposer of post-Orthodox property lots of Greek Catholic Lemkos turn to Orthodox Church and save their eastern rituals 1934 1947 not pure national minority, but an ethnic group define themselves as a sub-group half a million people identify
themselves as kashubs (according to Latoszek 1996) Basic informations Kashubian association Karaims Turkish population of the Khazar state Ethnic Origin At the end of the fourteenth century the Lithuanian Grand Duke Witold Karaites settled
in Lithuania. Karaim religion is based
on the Old Testament- especially the Decalogue. It can't have any additional content. development of
cultural life
after the fall of
establishment of the Association of Polish Karaites,
socio-cultural associations, TVP Bialystok gives a weekly program in Lithuanian Lithuanians in Poland are doing well. Poles in Lithuania are not: Polish "pany won". Polish-Lithuanian union, Jagiello as a "traitor of the
Lithuania nation" the problem of
polonization Karaims Religion 1997 Activity Lithuanians Lithuanians Bibliography:
2. Górny Agata, Izabela Grabowska-Lusinska, Magdalena Lesinska and Marek Okólski (eds.). 2010. IMMIGRATION TO POLAND. POLICY, EMPLOYMENT, INTEGRATION. Warszawa: SCHOLAR.
5. Marger, Martin N. 2009. RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS. AMERICAN AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES. Eight Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
6. Szczepanski, Marek S. (ed.). 1997. ETHNIC MINORITIES AND ETHNIC MAJORITY. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ETHNIC RELATIONS IN POLAND. Katowice: Uniwersytet Slaski. Articles In the internet and websites:
1. 5.http://www.desa.pl/assets/drgalleries/8137/thumb_234.jpg
2. http://www.karaimi.org/
3. http://www.karaimi.org/index.php/o-nas/historia
4. http://karaimi.org/index.php/o-nas/religia
5. http://lemko.org/index.html
6. http://www.nowiny24.pl/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=NW&Date=99999999&Category=TURYSTYKA01&ArtNo=409065716&Ref=AR&border=0&MaxW=666
7. http://pbc.biaman.pl/Content/2045/litwomani_i_polonizatorzy.pdf
8. http://pbc.biaman.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=1987&from=latest
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10. http://www.poranny.pl/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20091114/MAGAZYN/133490218
Pictures and videos:
1. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-oHiIU5hFHU8/Tk6wvMZIlBI/AAAAAAAADtA/9e2S_L16U6w/s1600/2011.07.24+11.50.14+DMSzala.jpg
2. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Hf0IsR4inO4/Tk6wyVcMZ_I/AAAAAAAADtg/NQsEg2ITcHQ/s1600/2011.07.24+13.33.40+DMSzala.jpg
3. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-eQce14MvaEI/Tk6wvKW9JII/AAAAAAAADs8/2zJigJ1INmA/s1600/2011.07.24+11.46.42+DMSzala.jpg
4. http://www.besida.stowarzyszenielemkow.pl/sl/watra/31Watra2011r/afiszWatraMichalow2011_576pix.jpg
5. http://www.desa.pl/assets/drgalleries/8137/thumb_234.jpg
6. http://www.galeria.com.pl/oryg.php?id=1582&paski=auto&tytul=papier-czerpany-2400.jpg
7. http://galeria.tuchomie.pl/albums/Reca/kaszubi.jpg
8. http://www.goknwl.pl/motyw_kaszub.JPG
9. http://i.wp.pl/a/f/jpeg/26670/punsk2.jpeg
10. http://i2.wkrakowie.pl/med_structure/event/event_3034/MainImageAlternative/Medium.jpg
11. http://img.audiovis.nac.gov.pl/SM0/SM0_2-6122.jpg
12. http://img.naszemiasto.pl/grafika2/nowy/ee/3e/4e4ba9439c94a_o.jpg
13. http://images.photo.bikestats.eu/zdjecie,600,66767,podwojne-tablice.jpg
14. http://www.kaszubi.pl/files/1849ZKP_logo_2009.jpg
15. http://lemko.org/art/jula/3a.jpg
16. http://lemko.org/art/jula/18a.jpg
17. http://lemko.org/art/jula/22a.jpg
18. http://lemko.org/art/romaniv/R03s.jpg
19. http://lemko.org/art/romaniv/R16s.jpg
20. http://lemko.org/icons2/5b.jpg
21. http://www.petlura.com.pl/akcja_wisla.jpg
22. http://www.petulloartcollection.org/data/artwork/nikifor-noahs_ark-lg.jpg
23. http://www.pomorskie.eu/res/kultura/aktualnosci/02_2008/karaimi_jeruzalem_1907_r..jpg
24. http://www.polhotels.com/districts/polska.gif
25. http://silesiana.republikasilesia.com/piktografia/kaszubi1900.jpg
26. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/OUN-r_Flag_1941.svg/150px-OUN-r_Flag_1941.svg.png
27. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Dzewus_w_kaszebsczich_ruchnach.jpg
28. http://www.wilnoteka.lt/files/user_files/chief_editor/Walenty%20Wojni%C5%82%C5%82o_9/Punsk.jpg
29. http://wolyn1943.eu.interii.pl/lud44.jpg
30. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPZP7XdicMg
Full transcript