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Effortful vs. Automatic Processing

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David Milton Jr.

on 19 February 2015

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Transcript of Effortful vs. Automatic Processing

Citations
www.human-memory.net/processes_encoding.html
alleydog.com
Quizlet.com
http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ebbinghaus.shtml
http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/Ebbinghaus.html
http://www.flashcardlearner.com/articles/the-spacing-effect/
http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/serial_p.htm
http://www.human-memory.net/processes_encoding.html
http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Elaboration
Encoding
Encoding is the crucial first step to creating a new memory.
Encoding allows for and item of interest to be stored inside the brain to be pulled out for short or long term memory.
Effortful Processing
There are two types of processing Effortful and Automatic.
Effortful Processing is a type of encoding that requires attention and some degree of conscious effort.
This deals with any type of studying or way to remember something.
Overlearning
Overlearning is the repeated practice of a skill or study of a material to memorize it.
Overlearning leads to a better performance in high stress situations because by overlearning it it becomes second nature so when you get on stage for a concert you perform great.
Automatic Processing
The other type of processing is called Automatic Processing.
Automatic Processing deals with our unconscious encoding of incidental information. Examples of these would be time, space and frequency
Acronym Activity
Make an acronym out of these words
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
Encoding
Next-In-Line Effect
The Next-n-line effect occurs when someone doesn't remember what someone else said because they were focused on what they were supposed to do.
Semantic Encoding
Semantic encoding is a type of encodi in which the meaning of something is encoded by your brain as opposed to the sound or vision of it.
Researchers say that humans have better memory for things when we associate the meaning to it.
Mnemonic Devices
Mnemonic Devices are techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something.
Types of mnemonic Devices
Mental imagery
Method of loci
Peg-words
Chunking
Acronyms
Hierarchies
Mental Imagery
A mental image is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside of that person.
Method of Loci
Method of Loci is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualization to organize and recall information.
Memory contest champions are famous for this, and claim to use this technique to recall faces, digits, and lists of words.
Peg-words
The peg-word system is a technique that involves linking words with numbers.
The numbers and words often tend to rhyme.
Chunking
Chunking involves grouping a bunch of words together to remember more than your short term memory allows you to.
Acronyms
An acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.

Hermann Ebbinghaus
Background
German Experimental Psychologist
Influenced by fechner
Education
Studied History and Philology at the Universities of Bonn, Halle, and Berlin
1873- University of Bonn- Ph.D. in philosophy
Independent post-doctoral studies in England, France, and Germany
Career
Conducted first set of memory experiments in 1878-1879
Second set- 1883-1884
Professor at University of Berlin (1880-1893)
Opened an Experimental Psychology Lab at the University of Berlin (1886)
Co-founder of the Zeitschrift fur Psychology und Physiologie der Sinnersorgane (Journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organs) (1890)
Professor at the University of Breslau (1894-1905)
Founded a psychology lab at University of Breslau (1894)
Developed children’s intelligence test (1897)
Professor at the University of Halle (1905-1908)
Important Contributions
Developed first approach to the study of higher psychological process (memory)
First to describe the “learning curve”
Invented several tests of retention
Recall- simply try to remember each item
Free Recall- attempt to recall the list items; order not important
Serial Recall- attempt to recall the list items in the order studied
Recollection- Given a large list of CVS’s try to recognize which of them had been on the list studied
Savings- rememorize the list
First to discover the Serial Position Curve
The relation between the serial position of an item (place in the list) and the ability to recall it
Items at the beginning of the list are easier to recall (primacy effect) and items at the end of a list are easier to recall (recency effect)

Spacing
Spacing Effect: Information, which is presented over spaced intervals, is learned and retained more easily and more effectively
Discovered by Ebbinghaus
When remembering things in a list, if your reviews are farther apart in time, it is more beneficial than if it is repeated over a short period of time

Serial Position Effect
The serial position effect, also discovered by Ebbinghaus, states that items at the beginning of a list, and items at the end of a list are more likely to be remembered than items in the middle of the list
Primacy effect causes you to recall items at the beginning easier
Recency Effect causes you to recall items at the end easier
Serial position curve is used to plot the results of a free recall experiment
The curve is usually U-shaped
Visual and Acoustic Encoding
Encoding is the first step to creating a new memory
It is a biological event beginning with perception through the senses
Your attention level, controlled by the thalamus and the frontal lobe, plays a role in how well you remember
Two types of encoding are visual and acoustic
Visual Encoding
The process of encoding images and visual sensory information
The amygdala plays an important role in visual encoding
Accepts visual input and the input from other systems and encodes positive or negative values of conditioned stimuli
Acoustic encoding
The processing and encoding of sound, words, and other audible input for storage and later retrieval
Elaboration
The development of an existing idea by incorporating new information to augment the idea
Can be used as a memory retention method by making a memory with greater detail
Elaboration Theory
A model for sequencing and organizing courses of instruction
Sequence of lessons should increase from simple to complex
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