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Transcript of Louis Althusser:
This part basically coerces the working class to comply and be conned through violence aqnd opression. LOUIS ALTHUSSER Ideologies/Beliefs/Theories Life
Methodology/Theories Louis Pierre Althusser (1918–1990) was one of the most influential Marxist philosophers of the 20th Century.
He was born in Algeria
Studied at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, where he eventually became Professor of Philosophy.
He was inducted into the French army in 1939, Althusser was captured by German troops in 1940 and spent the remainder of the war in a prisoner of war camp. Background In 1948 he joined the French Communist Party (PCP)
suffered from Mental Illness
Althusser strangled his wife, Hélène, to death, following a period of mental instability.
He was exempted from punishment under the notion of diminished responsibility
He was instead committed to the Sainte-Anne psychiatric hospital where he stayed for 3 years. Background continued... •Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays.
•Reading Capital (with Étienne Balibar, Pierre Macherey, etc.).
•The Spectre of Hegel: Early Writings.
•Essays in Self-criticism.
•Philosophy and the Spontaneous Philosophy of the Scientists.
•Machiavelli and Us.
•Politics and History.
•The Humanist Controversy and Other Texts.
•Writings on Psychoanalysis.
•The Future Lasts Forever: A Memoir (Extract in Critical Inquiry)
•Philosophy of the Encounter: Later Writings Works Humanistic sociologist, believe that the actions of human beings are responsible for the history. As a structuralist Althusser believed that the social structures shape history by subtly influencing the population through several facets. Ideological Apparatus:includes the education system, the media, family members, political parties, etc.
They use this apparatus to deceive the working class into believing that capitalism is the best practice for society In the original base-superstructure model Carl Marx illustrated that the economic base determined the superstructure of its ideologies, proceedings, and institutions. He also went on to state that if there were any discrepancies within the base, it would cause a change in the superstructure and end in the down fall of it's capitalistic practices. Althusser interprets this a little differently.
he finds more complexities in the situation. According to his theories, "structural determinism occurs." For which there are 3 different levels of capitalism.
1. Economic Level-contains production to satisfy needs
2. Political Level- controls the forms of organization,
3. Ideological level-how people view themselves In a capitalist society, the economic level is the focal point.
But without the balance of the two levels capitalism will not thrive. there must be a balance. This can be distinguished in two "apparatuses."