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Unit 2: The Physiology of Fitness

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Dominic Anumudu

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Unit 2: The Physiology of Fitness

Unit 2: The Physiology of Fitness
Assignment 2: Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Body Systems
Dominic Anumudu B13
Miss Crawford

After long-term exercise muscles increase in size. This is a result of the contractile proteins within muscle cells which contract with more force. Males have a higher potential for increasing their muscle size due to higher levels of testosterone. This can be achieved through weight training (using resistance machines and free weights) and circuit training. The advantage of this in swimming for example is that swimmers are able to move through the water's resistance with more speed. Footballers also benefit from this as they are able to pass and shoot the ball much faster and further which means it is less likely to be intercepted by an opponent. In boxing, increasing muscle strength allows the boxer to throw punches with more force which will wear down the opponent much more and increase the chance of knocking them out.
Increase in Tendon Strength
Tendons are string tissues made from collagen which connect muscle to bone. Exercise increases the strength of tendons by contracting continuously and putting strain on them making them more active and replacing the cells with stronger ones. This increase in strength can be achieved by taking part in weight training and particularly isotonic training (muscles contract to produce movement). The advantage of stronger tendons is that injury is less likely as they can stretch further without being damaged. Therefore this is an advantage to Long Jumpers as they can extend further during a jump and increase their overall distance. The same advantage applies to goalkeepers as they extend their arms further when diving allowing them to save more difficult shots. Gymnasts can also benefit from this because tendons that can stretch further allow them to perform the moves to the full range of movement.
Increased number of mitochondria and storage of fat, glycogen and myoglobin
Myoglobin is a form of haemoglobin which transports oxygen and it is found in the muscle cells. Mitochondria are the power stations of the body's cells and they produce energy from oxygen. Glycogen and fat are stored in muscles and are broken down into long-term energy. All of these increase the supply of ATP. The way in which to increase these factors is to participate in long distance training e.g. continuous training. This is an advantage for basketball and football players as an increase in supply of ATP allows them to play for the duration of the match and keep working at a high tempo. An increase in these factors is an advantage for marathon runners because an increase in mitochondria improves the body's ability to produce energy so the runner will be able to train for longer and also run harder during the event.
Increased Muscle Strength
This long-term effect of exercise is related to muscle hypertrophy. Muscle strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. Increasing it can be achieved in the same way that muscle hypertrophy is achieved, through weightlifting using resistance machines and free weights and also circuit training. Muscles will only strengthen through the principle of progressive overload which is to increase the intensity or duration (reps and sets) of the activity over time. This benefits swimmers as they able able to move through the water's resistance much more rapidly as their strokes will be quicker. Additionally tennis players increase their muscle strength in their biceps and triceps so that they can serve the ball much quicker, making it harder for the opponent to return it. Bowlers in cricket will also improve muscle strength in the same area so that they can bowl the cricket ball at a high speed making it very difficult for the batter to hit the ball.
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Lactic acid is a waste product and limiting factor of exercise. Long-term exercise makes muscles more tolerant to it and able to clear it away effectively. This is because the capillary network extends allowing more blood to supply the muscles with oxygen which breaks down lactic acid. Endurance training is the best way to increase lactic acid tolerance as working for as long as you physically can means your muscles have to deal with it for a long period of time and each time you do this they will become better at clearing it away. Track cyclists increase their resistance to lactic acid as it allows them to cycle much faster for a longer period of time and lactic-acid build up is a big part of track cycle events due to isotonic movement. Professional basketballers e.g. NBA players benefit from this greatly as they play many games during a week so if they are able to deal with lactic acid better than their muscles will not ache as much meaning they will be able to play more games. 1500m runners also have a high tolerance as their muscles have to work for long periods of time so they need to be able to cope with the pain it causes in order to run for the duration of the race.
Increase in bone calcium stores
Long term exercise increases our bones mineral stores and as a result our bones become stronger. They are also strengthened as a result of the stress that exercise places on them. This exercise then means that more calcium and collagen is stored in them and collagen is the main protein of connective tissue. Because of this increase there is less chance of developing the disease Osteoporosis which is a loss of bone mass. There is also a change in the bone structure that makes bones brittle, weak and more to prone to fractures. The supportive connective tissue surrounding our joints is also strengthened. Resistance training and weight-bearing exercise help to achieve an increase in bone calcium stores. This benefits rugby players as it means they are less likely to break/fracture a bone when tackling an opponent or being on the receiving end of a tackle. American football players benefit from this too as there are lots of high impacts in each game so they need to have strong bones to withstand those impacts. Bone density is also important to boxers again, because their bones need to withstand the impact of punches otherwise a broken bone could end the fight very quickly.
Increased stretch of ligaments
Ligaments are the connective tissue that join bones to bones. They increase in strength and flexibility as a result of regular exercise. Flexibility training such as Yoga or daily stretching are the best ways in which to achieve an increase in the stretch of your ligaments. The advantage of this is that more flexible ligaments reduces the chance of injury as they are less likely to strain or tear. This benefits athletes who specialise in long jump as they are able to extend their legs further which allows them to jump a further distance. Goalkeepers also need increased stretch in their ligaments as they are able to reach further when diving allowing them to reach shots closer to the corners of the goal. It also provides more protection to joints like the shoulder when landing. In gymnastics, stretch of ligaments is important as gymnasts have to obviously be flexible in order to perform the movements.
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage in the body and it is found on the surfaces of bones. It's function is to help protect them from wear and tear and also provides shock absorption. The thickness of this cartilage becomes thicker by regularly exercising. Continuous training over a long period of time is the best way to increase the thickness of it. This is extremely important in Basketball as the sport involves lots of jumping therefore players need thick hyaline cartilage to protect the knees from impact. In football it has the same advantage for when players are jumping for headers, even though pitches are softer than basketball courts they need lots of protection at the knee joint for landing. Gymnasts need thick hyaline cartilage at the knee joint too on the floor routines as they perform very fast and high somersaults and land with their legs straight so the cartilage is going to be the only bit of shock absorption in their legs.
Increased production of synovial fluid
Any movement in our joints results in the secretion of synovial fluid which becomes less viscous with exercise. Because of this the range of movement a our joint then increases. The best way to increase the production of synovial fluid is to use the continuous method of training as the repetition of movement at the joint produces lots of synovial fluid. This provides an advantage in swimming as an increased range of movement at the shoulder means it is easier to move through the resistance of the water. This also benefits javelin throwers because being able to move their arms further back allows competitors to throw the javelin with more force, resulting in a greater distance. In dancing a greater range of movement means that the performer can perform the routine to the full range of movement making it more aesthetically pleasing.
Increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes
Long-term exercise causes cellular changes that increases the ability of muscle tissue to produce ATP ( a molecule of energy). Adaptations like like an increase in the number of mitochondria usually causes an increase in the aerobic system enzymes. A combination of these changes results in an athlete being able to train for long periods of time due to long-term training. As well as this the anaerobic energy system also changes for example an increase in enzymes that control the anaerobic phase of the glucose breakdown. Continuous training is the method in which to increase aerobic enzymes, at least 20-30mins at 60-80% of your maximum work rate. Aerobic enzymes allow the body to keep working which benefits marathon runners as it allows them to run the full distance. This is also important to tennis players as it lets them work at maximum capacity for for matches which last for a long time. Anaerobic enzymes allow quick work which benefits football players as they require bursts of energy when shooting and sprinting after a loose ball.
Increased use of fats as an energy source
During low intensity exercise, fat is the main energy source we use. Fat combustion makes up for approximately 25% of aerobic power and it increases if exercise extends to longer periods as the level of glycogen drops. A trained athlete had a greater chance to use fat as an energy source than a non-trained athlete and this is through continuous training which improves the body's usage of fat. Burning fat also makes you more lean. This helps 1500m runners as they have less weight to carry and they have more energy as they are able to use more of their stores. High jumpers also benefit from this as being lean means that they are more agile to bend their bodies over the bar and there is less weight to lift when jumping. A triathlete needs to increase their usage of fats also as they need to be able to use every bit of energy they have in order to complete the full distance of the endurance event.
Cardiac Hypertrophy
Long term exercise makes the heart increase in strength as the wall of the left ventricle thickens. This is because the strength of the contractions increases therefore more blood can be pumped around the body which also leads to an increase in stroke volume. Because more blood is being pumped, the heart can beat less often which causes resting heart rate to decrease. This is an advantage because more blood can be pumped faster, delivering more oxygen to the working muscles. This is achieved through continuous training over a long period of time. Basketball is an example of a sport which benefit from this as the working muscles, such as the biceps, triceps, quadriceps, gastrocnemius etc. have to work for the duration of the match therefore they need as much blood as possible. This also helps 1500m runners as they need the heart to pump as much blood as possible to the muscles to keep them working hard but also make sure there is no build-up of lactic acid during the event which will impact their performance.
Increase in Stroke Volume
Stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle with each beat. Stroke volume is higher at rest after endurance training programs due to the fact that more blood is being pumped per minute which increases cardiac output. Other effects of this are that blood vessels increase in size and resting heart rate lowers as it doesn't have to pump as often. This is achieved through endurance and continuous training and the advantage is more oxygen needed for energy reaches the muscles and so can work for longer. Tour de France cyclists benefit from this as this is an endurance event do they rely on the heart to pump as much blood as possible with each beat so that they can keep cycling and keep their momentum especially going uphill. Triathletes also need to increase their stroke volume because triathlons are endurance events therefore they need more blood to be pumped and deliver oxygen to the muscles and remove CO2.
Increase in Cardiac Output
Cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped around the body in one minute. It increases during long-term exercise because of an increase in stroke volume and it is a direct result of cardiac hypertrophy. Maximum cardiac output decreases with as you get older because of a decrease in maximum heart rate. The advantage of increasing cardiac output is that there is more blood to power muscles and waste products are removed faster. An athlete has to perform continuous training in order to achieve this and it benefits rowers for example. This is because they are able to row harder for longer as more blood is circulating the body and providing the energy that they need to keep moving their biceps, triceps and deltoids. Another sport in which this is an advantage is rugby because more blood to power the muscles means that the players can push harder for longer in a scrum and win possession of the ball.
Decrease in Resting Heart Rate
Resting heart rate decreases as a result of long-term exercise. This is because the heart becomes stronger which results in a reduce in the workload. Because of this, there is less chance of heart attacks and angina. More blood is being pumped in each contraction so stroke volume increases and this leads to an increase in the volume of blood being pumped in a minute. Resting heart rate that is below 60bpm is called bradycardia. This happens through a training program which includes lots of continuous training. This benefits hockey players as more blood being pumped around the body means that after training their bodies are more efficient at clearing away lactic acid so they will be able to perform again very quickly which will improve their skills.
Capillarisation is the development of the capillary network. Blood flow increases as a result of an increase in the size and number of blood vessels. This results in more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients which is advantageous because lactic acid is cleared away much faster and oxygen reaches the muscles much faster. This happens through continuous training. The benefit of this in basketball is that more blood reaches the variety of muscles (biceps, triceps, hamstrings, quadriceps) and so enables them to perform for throughout the four quarters. Increased blood flow is helpful to swimmers because it allows them to hold their breath for longer when underwater. This is due to the fact that there is more oxygenated blood in the body so they can stay underwater for longer, allowing them to move through the resistance more efficiently.
Increase in Blood Volume
This is the amount of blood circulating in our body. It varies from person to person but it increases as a result of continuous training. Also blood volume increases as a result of capillarisation because more blood is being pumped around the body. Therefore the advantage is that more oxygen is delivered to whichever muscles are being used in the activity and the removal of carbon dioxide is faster. A sporting example of where this benefits is in netball as more blood in the body reduces fatigue which lets the player shoot consistently for longer as fatigue affects your ability to shoot. It is also a benefit in football when training because having an increased blood volume means you can train for longer which means your fitness will improve at a faster rate and it also gives more time to develop skills.
Reduction in Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. Blood pressure rises during exercise and when we stop it should return to normal. The faster this happens the fitter the person is. Research shows that regular exercise helps lower blood pressure and the way to do this is through continuous training. Strokes, heart attacks and type 2 diabetes are all reduced as a result of reducing resting blood pressure.
Decreased Recovery Time
Heart rate recovery is a measure of how much heart rate falls during the 1st minute after exercise. The fitter an athletes heart, the quicker it returns to normal after exercise. Fitter individuals generally recover faster because their CV system can adapt faster to increased demands of exercise. Usually achieved through lots of continuous training. The advantage of this is if an athlete has to suddenly exercise again then they will be more prepared, for example in football when sprinting after a loose ball the player needs to be able to recover quickly in order to play the rest of the game. The same applies in tennis because players need to recover quickly during the break between games so that they are ready to hit/defend the next serve.
Increased Aerobic Fitness
If we exercise for a period of weeks or months our body changes to cope with this e.g. the heart becomes stronger. The physiological changes that occur with repetition improves aerobic efficiency. Increasing aerobic fitness leads to better delivery of oxygen and the process of removing carbon dioxide speeds up therefore the heart becomes more efficient. Continuous training is the method of training needed to achieve this and it is a result of cardiac hypertrophy and capillarisation. This is an advantage because it allows the performer to work for longer, for example a marathon runner can compete for the whole distance without stopping. In boxing aerobic fitness is important as tiredness leads to more mistakes and means the boxer is more likely to let his guard down which will result in being hit.
Increased Vital Capacity
Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air a person can expel after maximum inspiration. Vital capacity increases as a direct effect of vital capacity. Normally vital capacity is around 4800cm cubed. Because of this increase there is a more efficient supply of oxygen to our working muscles. The way to increase this is to take part in continuous training such as long distance running/cycling/swimming. This is an advantage in basketball for example because a more efficient supply of oxygen to the working muscles means that the player is able to run up and down the court for the full game without becoming fatigued. It also provides an advantage in 1500m races because an increased vital capacity means more air is moving in and out of the lungs which provides more energy for the runner. This means they can run faster for longer which will allow them to beat the competition.
Increase in Minute Ventilation
This is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one minute. Minute ventilation depends on tidal volume and breathing rate. Your minute ventilation value increases due to long term exercise as the strength of the respiratory muscles increases. Continuous training is the method of training which increases minute ventilation through lots of endurance activities. This puts the respiratory muscles under strain so they have to work harder and therefore they adapt to cope with the workload. This is an advantage in triathlons because more air inhaled means that more oxygen reaches the muscles needed to run, swim and cycle and therefore they have more energy to work for longer. Another example where this is an advantage is boxing because boxers have to keep their arms elevated even when they are tired because they need to keep their defense up, therefore more oxygen reaching the biceps and triceps helps them to do this.
Increased Strength of Respiratory Muscles
The respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. Because of long term exercise our diaphragm and intercostal muscles increase in strength allowing for greater expansion of the chest cavity. This results in being able to breathe in more air with each breath. Therefore our bodies are able to take in more and breathe out more carbon dioxide. This is achieved through continuous training but it can also be done with interval training. The advantage of this in swimming is that the swimmer is able to get more air into the lungs with each breath and so has more energy for moving through the water's resistance. It also provides an advantage in football because in order to keep working for 90 mins at different intensities the player needs as much air as possible so a greater expansion of the chest is very important.
Increase in Oxygen Diffusion Rate
Diffusion takes place in the capillaries and the alveoli in the lungs. An increase in the rate of diffusion allows for oxygen to reach the working muscles more rapidly and also carbon dioxide to be removed more efficiently. The way to achieve an increase in diffusion rate is to participate in continuous training regularly. The benefit of oxygen reaching the muscles faster in basketball is that players are able to perform more explosive actions such as driving to the basket without becoming exhausted therefore they have a big advantage over the defender. This is because they will be able to tire the defender out and make them prone to more mistakes. The same applies in hockey as a higher oxygen diffusion rate means that the player can strike the ball harder when passing or shooting and there will be supply of oxygen great enough to do this throughout the whole game without becoming fatigued.
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