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PBL Presentation

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Aqidah Nurul

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of PBL Presentation

PBL Presentation
Scenario 2
LIST OF QUESTIONS
Why is Jeremy uninterested and unmotivated in class?
How are Jeremy’s parents contributing to his lack of motivation?
How have his teachers contributed to a negative class environment?
How has peer bullying affected Jeremy’s social and academic self-worth and hence his class participation?
JEREMY SELF-REGULATES NEGATIVELY DUE TO HIS SURROUNDINGS
KEY
HYPOTHESES
KEY PROBLEMS, THEORIES AND SOLUTIONS
JEREMY LACKS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION DUE TO HIS PARENTS PARENTING-STYLE
JEREMY HAS A NEGATIVE SELF CONCEPT DUE TO HIS PEERS
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
Problem Statement
Overarching Theory
Key Hypotheses
List of Questions
Key Problems + Theories + Solutions
Desired Outcome
Conclusion
List of References

JEREMY SELF-REGULATES NEGATIVELY DUE TO HIS SURROUNDINGS
JEREMY LACKS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION DUE TO HIS PARENTS
JEREMY HAS A NEGATIVE SELF-CONCEPT DUE TO HIS PEERS
LIST OF REFERENCES
JEREMY LACKS INCLINATION TO LEARN DUE TO HIS TEACHERS
Explaining Jeremy's Behaviour
Autonomy Problems:
lack of Jeremy's input on learning goals
studying to avoid bad consequences
Jeremy feels controlled and therefore disengages school activities from personal development.
Relatedness Problems:
lack of parent involvement and peer acceptance
Competence Problems:
Jeremy's attempts in class have not been accorded positive feedback by peers or teacher.




PROBLEM
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Social Cognitive Theory
A person's learning and cognitive behavior has triadic mutual relationship with the environment.
Jeremy's low-self efficacy is attributed to his parents' parenting style - authoritarian style.

Negative Reinforcement
Parents are using aversive techniques, which produces undesirable emotional effects on Jeremy.
Parents removed his swimming lesson, and added more tuition in an attempt to improve Jeremy's academic performance.
Tuition & Swimming lesson
SOLUTIONS
Change Parenting Style

Avoid using aversive techniques (negative punishment) that can disrupt the child's emotional needs

Negotiate and rationalize with the child upon using certain techniques when helping him improve his academic performance

Allow child his own 'me-time', so that he can have some form of escapism
PIAGET'S CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY
"Construction is superior to instruction"
- Children build their own knowledge
- Teachers should support children's unique ways of learning

Learning can be influenced by situational contexts e.g. classroom environment and teacher's attitudes towards the student

Educational principles derived from Piaget's Theory
- Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn
- Acceptance of individual differences
Fulfill students' basic psychological needs
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Jeremy must feel like he is genuinely cared for e.g. Ms Low should talk to him to find out why he is sleeping in class instead of shouting at him

Knowledge Transmission --> Learning Facilitation
- Teaching should not just presenting knowledge like what Ms Low did in her Math class
- To ensure Jeremy does not doze off in class, Ms Low can employ more interactive pedagogical tools that may suit Jeremy's style of learning

Improving Classroom Environment
- Threat of failure diminished - Increasing scaffolding
- Correct standards of behaviour is taught and enforced - Teachers MUST stop the bullying!
- Teacher is enthusiastic
THEORY
SOLUTIONS
REFERENCES

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H.
Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191.

Berk, Laura E. (2004). Infants, Children and Adolescents, 5th Edition. USA: Ally & Bacon.

Buhs, E. S. (2005). Peer rejection, negative peer treatment, and school adjustment: Self-concept and classroom engagement as mediating processes. Journal of School Psychology, 43(5), 407-424.

Bandura's S-O-R model / Self-Determined Learning / Self-Regulated Learning

Children internally rationalize desired behavior based on context

People want to integrate into social context!
Self-determined vs Controlled = Internal Choice vs External Compliance
3 Key Factors: Competence, Relatedness, Autonomy
Student can negatively self-regulate : student might pretend to become ill, give a half-hearted effort, or cheat.










SOLUTIONS: How to Motivate?
Self-monitoring, self-appraisal, goal-setting :
involve Jeremy in the decision making process
what tasks to engage with? / how much time to allocate?
Where choice is not available, acknowledge his feelings of not liking the task

In the Classroom:
feedback and instructions must "adopt recipient's frame of reference"
the personal utility of the activity to Jeremy must be explicit.
open-ended instructional activities
What Motivates us?
REFERENCES
Carter, Debra k. Parenting Coordination: A Practical Guide for Family Law Professionals. Springer Publishing Company. 2011.

Deci, Edward. L et al. “Motivation and Education: The self-determination perspective” in Educational Psychologist. Vol.26. pp.325-346. 1991.

Gordon, Ann Miles & Browne, Kathryn Williams. (2007) Beginnings and Beyond: Foundations in Early Childhood Education, 7th Edition. USA: Cengage Advantage Books.

Hay, I., & Ashman, A. F. (2003). The development of adolescents' emotional stability and general self-concept: The interplay of parents, peers, and gender. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 50(1), 77-91.

Hoxby, C. (2000). Peer effects in the classroom: Learning from gender and race variation (No. w7867). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Consequences to Jeremy
Disaffected
Disillusioned
Low-self-esteem
Passive in class
Problem
His teachers do not create a supportive learning environment that would encourage Jeremy to learn
Mr Tan: "You better decide fast! Or I will decide for you! ... So you are the odd one out again huh, Jeremy?"

Mostly negative learning environment in Jeremy's classes (Criticizing him in front of his peers, physically dragging him out of class)
Ms Low: “What is wrong with you? You don’t even know your responsibilities as a student, is it? Maybe you should go back to primary school!.. Why can't you be like the others?”


Jeremy is ostracized by his peers due to his socio-economic status.
His peers often passed insensitive remarks through name calling
Jeremy's lack of security and sense of belonging.
PROBLEMs
Peer's attitude affect Jeremy's learning
Scenarios
Caleb: Don’t bother asking our busy classmate lar. He has something on everyday! Monday tuition, Tuesday tuition, everyday also tuition! Still got ‘timetable’ okay? Don’t play play ah!” ( Ostracized by the classmates)
Caleb:“Hey, you dumb or what? Can contribute or not?”( Criticized by the peers)
Jeremy: Hi Dino. Today is not really a good day. I always get teased by my classmates. I am so sick of it.
MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
SELF ACTUALIZATION
Motivation to develop one's full potential as human being
In Maslow's views, self-actualization is possible only after the lower needs havebeen met.
Without fulfilling the love and belonging needs, it will be hard attain self-esteem and ultimately self-actualization.
Jeremy clearly lacks the self-belonging needs, hence affecting his self-worth.



SOLUTION
PROMOTE SELF-BELONGING IN CLASSROOM

THEORY
Social Behaviorist Learning Theory (Bandura)


Teacher should put Jeremy in a group where the classmates are more supportive towards him
Buddy system
Scaffold the work given

Set realistic and acceptable goals for Jeremy

Positive Modeling
-Model Similarity
-Schunk asserts that observing success will motivate them


Social Persuasion
-Bandura also asserted that people could be persuaded to believe that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed.
-Teachers and peers should direct positive comments towards Jeremy
Positive comments

High Self-Efficacy
Desired Outcome
With the cooperation of parents, teachers and peers, Jeremy can have increased motivation to participate in class and a greater inclination to learn.
Problem Statement
As beginning teachers, it is essential to recognise the various inter-related elements that can influence a student's learning behaviour .
Authoritarian parenting style
Parents have little regard for his emotional well-being
Lack the motivational contribution towards child's upbringing
Parents are not working together to solve the child's problem
Parents are disengage with Jeremy's life



Scenario
“What’s wrong with you?...You are such a disappointment! We will stop your swimming lessons then. You will take up more tuitions on weekends as well”
But, ma....
Consequences on Jeremy?
He'll be more unmotivated to study, as he would really love to have a time-off from schoolwork.
Swimming is his only source of escapism from reality. By taking it away without negotiating and rationalizing it with him, he will dread studying even more.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
Inter-relatedness among the different groups

JEREMY LACKS INCLINATION TO LEARN DUE TO HIS TEACHERS
Authoritarian Parenting Style
parent determines the rule and the child follows
attempts to shape, control and evaluate the behaviour and attitude of the child in accordance with a set of standard conduct (Baumrind, 1971)
will often use destructive criticism when they discipline their child
Hartup and Laurson (1993), authoritarian parents often put a child down, and give little or no explanation for punishment
Baumrind (1971) found children of authoritarian parents to be more often withdrawn, discontent and distrustful.
what I say, you follow!
Understand?!
CONCLUSION
JEREMY SELF-REGULATES NEGATIVELY DUE TO HIS SURROUNDINGS
JEREMY LACKS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION DUE TO HIS PARENTS
JEREMY HAS A NEGATIVE SELF CONCEPT DUE TO HIS PEERS
JEREMY LACKS INCLINATION TO LEARN DUE TO HIS TEACHERS
References
Kember, David & Gow, Lyn. (1994). Orientations to Teaching and Their Effect on the Quality of Student Learning. The Journal of Higher Education, 65 (1), 58-74.

Newman, R. S. (2000). Social influences on the development of children's adaptive help seeking: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Developmental Review, 20(3), 350-404.

Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. (2001). The development of academic self-efficacy. Development of achievement motivation. United States.

Paris, Scott G. And Paris, Alison H. “Classroom Applications of Research on Self-Regulated Learning” in Educational Psychologist , 36(2), 89–101. 2001

Penno, Douglas A., Frank, Alan R. & Wacker, David P. Instructional Accommodations for Adolescent Students with Severe Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Behavioral Disorders. v25 n4 p325-43 Aug 2000
References
ierce, Cecilia. (1994). Importance of Classroom Climate for At-Risk Learner. The Journal of Educational Research, 88 (1).

Poston, B. (2009). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Surgical Technologist, 348.

Reeve, Johnmarshall. “Self-determination theory applied to educational settings” in Handbook of Self-determination research. Eds. Ryan, Richard M. And Deci, Edward. L. pp.183-202. 2002.

Schunk, D. H., Hanson, A. R., & Cox, P. D. (1987). Peer-model attributes and children's achievement behaviors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 54.

Skinner, Ellen A. & Belmont, Michael J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85 (4), 571-581.

Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2),202.

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