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Memory

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maria jordan

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Memory

Emotions Module 23 & 24 Studying, Building,
&
Storing Memories Short-Term
Memory
Challenge Here are the Rules! - You have 30 seconds to
memorize as many figures
as possible.

- You may not write down what you see.

- No partner memorization

- No cheating! How did you do? - Research shows that the average
young adult (18-24) cannot memorize
more than 9 items in the time frame
given.

- Did you memorize more than 9?

- How did you do it? What is Memory? -Information that has been stored
in a specific area in our brain and
can be later retrieved. The 3 R's of Memory Retention Recall:
Retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness, but was learned at an earlier time. Recognition:
Identifying items previously learned. Relearning:
Learning something more quickly when you learned it a second time. "Objection! That's an unreliable source!" How do feel about brain fingerprinting? It aids in the defense or prosecution of an accused person Controversy #2
Brain Fingerprinting Types of Memory Sensory:
recording to-be remembered information, it feeds our working memory. Short Term (ST):
small, brief storage space for recent thoughts and experiences. Working Memory:
the active processing of short term to long term. Long Term (LT):
deepest stage of memory processing. Iconic:
A momentary sensory of visual stimuli. Example:
a picture image lasting a few seconds. Echoic:
A momentary sensory of auditory stimuli. Example:
recalling words after a few seconds. limits to about 7 pieces of information for about 15 to 30 seconds. Semantic LT:
Includes memories of symbols, words, and concepts, such as
language. Procedural LT:
Includes stimuli memory and patterns of procedural response. Episodic LT:
Includes life events or
experiences. Information-Processing Model: Encoding:
The ability to get information into our brain. Storage:
The ability to retain information. Retrieval:
The ability to get the memory out of storage. Sensory Memory Sensory Input What you hear, see, feel and smell Working and Short-Term Memory Retrieval Encoding long-term memory Connectionism Memories are products of interconnected neural networks, specific memories come from particular activation patterns within these networks. New memories cause new neural pathways to be formed in the brain. This helps you to interact with your constantly changing environment. Not only do new connections form, but also existing connections can be strengthened. 2 Types of Dual-Track Processing Explicit Memory Implicit Memory Consciously know and recall facts and experiences. Effortful Processing enables forming of explicit memories. Unconscious memory; contains information of skills that we do not need conscious awareness to perform them. Riding a bike Playing a guitar Automatic processing: implicit memories skip our conscious encoding and go directly into storage with this process. Strategies for Effortful Processing Chunking Mnemonics Hierarchies Distributed Practice Organize items into familiar, manageable units which enables us to recall them more easily. Dividing a few broad concepts into narrower concepts to help us retrieve information more efficiently. Memory retention is better when encoding is distributed over time. Memory Palace Theory A technique used to memorize
large amounts of facts by
compartmentalizing
information. How to Build a Memory Palace Application Now we will repeat the Short-Memory Test using a different set of objects. This time, use your knowledge of the strategies for effortful processing to improve your results. You can use strategies such as chunking, mnemonics, hierarchies, and distributed practice. After completing the test and recording your results, compare your improved test results with your old test results. Define a route Identify a specific place to store the information A way to move through your palace Explore your palace and take advantage of its memory storing capabilities! Decide on a place Controversy #1 "I think I thought what I thunk!" "My therapist said that memory was only a bad dream" False Memory Syndrome FMS states that memories are perceived to be true, but may simply be memories created by the individual. FMS suggests that some therapists plant these negative memories in their client's heads
and they soon start to believe
these memories are true. (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr How did you do? 1. Basic level of encoding Deep Processing involves more meaningful processing such as images, thinking, associations, etc.; involves more meaningful processing such as images, thinking, associations, etc. (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr What role does memory play in the classroom and studying? Levels of Processing Shallow
Processing 2. leads to retaining information in the short-term
memory. - Structural processing: when we encode only the physical
qualities of something. -Phonemic processing: which is when we encode its sound. Semantic processing: when we process the meaning of a word and relate it to other similar words that have similar meaning. Snapbacks Synaptic
Changes Stress Disrupts our focus and does substantial damage. Recent studies found that stress
does not suppress neural activity
but modifies neural action. Trigger stress hormones, affecting memory formation The stronger the emotion, the stronger
the memory How is memory embedded in the brain? Psychologists research interaction of neurons at synapses Long-Term Potentiation (LTP):
An increase in a cell’s firing
potential after brief, rapid
stimulation. Believed to be a
neural basis for learning and
memory production. Factors That Affect Memory Processing The problem lies within the prefrontal cortex, which is where the brain keeps
temporary information. Disruption of the prefrontal cortex limits a person's memory capacity, making the person easily distracted, impulsive, and
argumentative. Sleep Study conducted by Jeffrey Ellenbogen of Harvard Medical School on 60 healthy people to memorize 20 words. Half of the subjects were to say
the words after a 12 hour day
and no naps; the other half
were told to say them again
after a good nights sleep. The group that slept had 94% of the subjects remember all of the words and the other group had only 82%
remember. The researchers added a twist by having the groups memorize another
set of words just 12 minutes before
testing them. The results of that showed the group that had slept recalled 76% and the other group recalled only
32% of the words. The study concluded that “sleeping on it” may just be the
best way to remember
something. Memory aids using techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Memory Test Read the list of related words. After 30 seconds, write down all
the words you can remember. stories pencil paper
ocean folder stapler
school pages eraser
pen binder study How did
you do? Cons Pros What is Brain Fingerprinting? A forensic science technique that is used to determine
whether specific information is stored in a subject’s
brain by using Electroencephalography (EEG). An EEG measures electrical brainwave responses to words, phrases, or pictures
on a computer screen. #1 Information in the brain is revealed, such as information on a crime.

#2. Applied in a number of high-profile criminal cases.

#3. Rule admissible in court.

#4. Does not depend on emotions--simply responds to brain's response to words, phrases, pictures, etc. #1. Detects only information, not intent.

#2. Does not detect lies--simply detects determination to be made by a computer or a scientist.

#3. Does not determine innocence or guilt of a suspect--this is a legal determination to be made by a judge and jury. Concept Quiz! What are the three signs that show
that you retained a memory? What are the three steps of information
processing and retention? What are some strategies
for effortful processing? What is working memory? What are some factors that influence memory processing? Discussion Questions! Memory
in the Classroom Studies show that there are ways to improve class performance in the classroom. Students who actively participate in class and take notes, do significantly better in the class than their peers who do not do the same. Recall, Recognition, and Relearning Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval Chunking, Mnemonics, Hierarchies, Distributed Practice The active processing of short-term memories
to form it into a long-term memory. without working memory, short-term
memories do not last long. Emotions, Synaptic Changes, Sleep, Stress We cannot retain
information unless
we put priority on it! Example:
taking notes and rehearsing
the information What role does memory play
in the medical field? Application for Professional Practice Importance of being well
rested and not stressed
while working with
patients. Stress causes the subject to make impulsive and rash decisions that may be harmful to the patient. While administering medication, the practitioner must be able to focus and concentrate. These factors also influence the nurse or doctor to be uncooperative to work as a team. In the medical field, teamwork is essential for the patient’s healing. By relaxing the mind, this allows maximum memory processing and retention rates. If they do not transfer information into their long-term memory, they will not remember important concepts to treat their patients. Continue to review information learned during college to implement effortful processing. By using methods of distributed practice, over time information will be encoded into your long-term memory even when it is not used on a day-to-day basis. When on long shifts in the workplace, it is important for nurses and practitioners in the medical field to utilize breaks to relax their mind. Take Away Points #1. What memory is (long, short, sensory)

#2. Memory models (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)

#3. What factors influence our memory processing.

#4. Effortful processing versus automatic processing.

#5. The benefits of effortful processing and using our working memory.

> How to embed information into our working
memory.

#6. Application of memory in classroom setting and in the professional practice. Use symbols
to help to
remember
items Be creative and fill your palace with mnemonics Some of our memories are
true, some are a mixture of
fact and fantasy, and some
are false "Is this real life?" "I know that you know that I know you're guilty!" Because BF is based solely on brainwave responses, the intent or episodic memory of the subjected person may be disguised by "hard facts"
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