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Transcript of Urea Presentation
2NH (g) + CO (g) NH COONH (s) H -ve 3 2 2 4 Reaction 2
NH COONH (s) NH CONH (s) + H O (g) H +ve 2 4 2 2 2 Reaction 1
2NH (g) + CO (g) NH COONH (s) H -ve 3 2 2 4 Reaction 1 Fast
Essentially goes to completion under normal industrial processing conditions.
There is a large decrease in the entropy of the system, as there are three moles of gas on the left and 1 mole of solid on the right. Reaction 2 Slow
Does not reach equilibrium under normal precessing conditions.
There is an increase in the entropy of the system due to the formation of a gas. See! it's not just in wee! Reaction 2
NH COONH (s) NH CONH (s) + H O (g) H +ve 2 4 2 2 2 CO 2 Synthesis NH 3 Decomoposition Heat Concentration Granulation Urea granules Recovery Cooling H O 2 H O 2 Heat NH , CO 3 2 Carbon dioxide and ammonia are compressed at 240 atm.
78% of the CO is converted into urea.
The gasses are put into a second reactor at 50 atm .
60% of the remaining CO is converted. Urea is heated under vacuum, increasing the concentration.
Some urea crystalises. Water and any unused reactants are impurities at decomposition stage. Purification happens in 3 stages.
Each stage occurs at a lower pressure, 17 atm to less than 1 atm in the final stage. The carbon dioxide and ammonia escape when they become gaseous.
These are then recycled. Thank you
Any Question ? The final product are urea granules.
They're formed by spraying conc solution onto seed granules. 2 2 History In 1828, the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler obtained urea by treating silver cyanate with ammonium chloride. AGNCO + NH4Cl (NH2)2CO + AgCl
This was the first time an organic compound was artificially synthesized from inorganic starting materials, Minia University
Faculty Of Engineering
Chemical Engineering Department Advantage Of Urea Fertilizer : 1- Urea can be applied to soil as solid or solution to acertain crops. 2- Urea usage involves No fire or explosion Hazard 3- Urea Is rich with N2 46 % 4- Urea production release few pollutants to the enviroment Production Prilling tower Urea as a soil Fertilizer Properties Molecular formula CH4N2O
Density 1.32 g/cm3
Appearance White solid
Melting point 133–135 °C
Basicity pKBH+ = 0.18