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Roman Republic to Empire

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Hailey Stockford

on 14 December 2013

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Transcript of Roman Republic to Empire

From Republic to Empire
Julius Caesar
During this time, Julius Caesar emerged as an ambitious military commander. However, Caesar gained many powerful enemies by 50 B.C.. While his life was being threatened, he started a civil war in Italy, defeating his enemies, and taking hold of power.
In 753 B.C., the Roman civilization arose in Italy. Romulus and Remus were the founders of Rome. This civilization started out as a Republic. Among many others, Romans shared Italy with Etruscan who lived north of Rome.
In 509 B.C., Rome drove out their Etruscan rulers, who had ruled Romans for hundreds of years. The Etruscans established their state as a Republic that belonged to the people. These people chose officials to prevent individuals from gaining too much power.
Structure of the Republic
In the Roman Republic, the senate made laws and controlled the government. A wealthy class called the aristocracy dominated. Two consuls or leaders elected by the senate held the highest positions in government and ruled the Roman Republic.
As a result of the empire's presence in the Mediterranean, conflict began to arise in Roman society, crushing the Republic.
Growth Through Conquest
The Roman Republic began to grow and Roman armies expanded across Italy. By 270 B.C., Rome had conquered the Etruscans and the Greek city states in the south.
After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor, turning them into Roman Provinces. Other regions such as Egypt allied with Rome. By 133 B.C., Roman power expanded from Spain to Egypt.
This new wealth of conquered lands led to corruption and greed, and self interest replaced the virtues of the early Roman Republic. Rome then plunged into a series of civil wars revolving around who should hold power.
In 58 B.C., he set out with his army to make new conquests. After Caesar conquered Rome, he forced the senate to make him dictator in 46 B.C.. About a year later, he returned home after eliminating his enemies.
In March of 44 B.C., he arrived at the senate and was stabbed to death by the joined forces of his old enemies and even some of his supporters who were tired of his dictatorship style.
Augustus Builds a Stable Government
Augustus left the senate in place and created an efficient civil service to enforce laws. He also made several economic reforms such as making tax systems more fair and putting the jobless to work. Augustus maintained 40 years of prosperity and peace. He created a diverse society and great marketplace. After his death in 14 A.D., the Senate declared him god.
In 31 B.C., Caesar's grandnephew, Octavian, came to power. Octavian received the title of Augustus. Alongside his ally, Marc Anthony, he killed Caesar's old enemies, took Rome, and gave Egypt to Anthony. Soon after, Anthony was seduced by Egypt's queen, and Augustus suspected they wanted to take over Rome, so he attacked. Augustus was victorious in the Battle of Actium, and in 31 B.C., he became Rome's first emperor. The 500-year-old Republic came to an end, and a new age began--the age of the Roman empire.
Plebeians were farmers, merchants, and artisans who made up most of the Roman population. At this time, Plebeians basically had no say in the government. Eventually, the plebeians elected representatives who were able to veto ideas passed by the senate. Over time, the plebians gained more power and were able to hold the position of consul.
During the Roman Republic, the idea of citizenship emerged and later changed the Roman Empire's belief about a person's status. Roman citizens wore white togas to separate themselves from non-citizens and slaves. However, purple togas were worn by emperors during the Roman Empire.
Rome's conquest of Italy brought them into contact with the city state of Carthage which stretched across North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. As Rome expanded, conflicts were unavoidable.
Between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C., Rome fought three wars against Carthage. Rome completely destroyed Carthage in the third war which resulted in Rome ruling the western Mediterranean and the building of an Empire. As Rome was fighting Carthage in the the west, Rome was also expanding in the east.
Rome's growth through conquest was made easier by their efficient armies. Romans made good soldiers because they were raised to value loyalty, courage, and respect for authority. Conquered people were usually treated well and were allowed to keep their customs, money and local government.
Romans were devoted to the idea of imperialism or establishing control over foreign lands and people.
One-hundred fifty A.D. was the height of Roman power. At this time, Rome's control made the Republic one of the greatest empires in Europe. Several nations conquered by Rome benefited from Roman rule. The Roman way of life which included public baths, water systems, roads, and housing provided many with a higher standard of living.
The Romans Arose
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Punic Wars Begin
Rome Spreads Power to Italy
Rome Builds an Empire
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Rome Continues to Expand
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