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Brazil Foreign and Defence Policy

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Lim Keong

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Brazil Foreign and Defence Policy

By SLTC Lim Teck Keong (CP 59) AIM Introduction Introduction Foreign Policy of Brazil To Provide an Overview of Brazil's Foreign and Defence Policy 10 Things You May Not Know about Brazil Evolution of Brazil’s foreign policy: 4 main paradigms
(1) Primary-exports model from Independence to 1930
(2) Developmental model from 1930 to 1989
(3) Neoliberalism of the 1990s
(4) Logistics State in the 21st century - 1950s: Brazil’s FP founded on the ideology of developmentalist

- Reduce her dependency on US; adopted policy of diversification

- 1961 to 1964: President Joao Goulart ‘independent’ FP, adopting a nationalist and ‘3rd Worldist’ stance; G77, NIEO

- Pursuit of National Autonomy, the anti-US hegemonic stance, and the reluctance to rely on US: Brazil-US Relations Brazil Foreign and Defence Policy Scope - Introduction
- Brazil Foreign Policy
- Relations with US, China and India
- Brazil Defence Policy
- Conclusion 1. Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world
2. The most common last name in Brazil is Silva
3. Brazil's soccer team is the only team that has participated in every World Cup; Brazil won five World Cups

4. About 1.5 million pizzas are consumed each day in Brazil
5. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country in the world 6. Brazil is home to the Amazon Rainforest, the world's largest remaining rainforest
7. The national drink is the caipirinha
8. The longest country in the world (4500 km)
9. Home to the largest Japanese city outside of Japan
10. Brazil’s name comes from a tree (pau-brasil) Why?
- 5th most populous country
in the world: 191 m
- 6th largest economy in the world: US$2.47 trillion
- Largest country in South America: 50% of population and GDP Becoming a big player in
international politics and economy Background - Portuguese colony > 300 years (from 1500 till 1822); independence on 7 Sep 1822
- Portuguese: official language of Brazil
- Under military government from 1964 to 1985
- Largest country in S. America; 8.5 m km2 (almost 65 x bigger than P. Malaysia)
- Border every country except Chile and Ecuador 1/4 Brazil’s land contains 60% of the Amazon rainforests (3.3 million km2) The Developmental Model
from 1930 - 1989 Strategic Context:

- US exerting its influence as regional hegemon
- key political and economic nodes
- shape the foreign and domestic policies of the Latin American countries Brazil’s National Interests

(1) National autonomy

(2) Defend economic and political sovereignty

(3) Enhance international recognition

(4) Self-reliance in economic The Developmental Model from 1930 - 1989 - 1964-1974: Brazil-US relations improved.
1964 coup d’état: overthrow of President Joao Goulart; military government (led by Castelo Branco) build a ‘special relationship’ with US, adopted anti-communist FP

- 1974: ‘special relationship’ short-lived; General Ernesto Geisel introduced FP of ‘responsible pragmatism’, ended Brazil’s automatic alignment with US; establish non-ideological ties with 3rd World and socialist countries

- Relations deteriorated due to conflicting issues relating to HR, nuclear and support for the developing world - Economic self-reliance: developmentalist and nationalist FP;
inward looking economic model strategy of ‘import-substitution’ vs ‘export-led’ growth
‘nationalist mercantilism’
- state controls of commerce and credit, centrally directed state enterprises, dependent private sector with subsidized industries and agriculture
- restrictions on imports of foreign goods and services & strict controls on tech transfers - Industrial development based on large internal market
- Economic growth averaged > 6 % a year over 3 decades
- 1980s: Brazil's robust growth came to a halt; state-centered economy went broke
waste of capital
debt crisis
- Economic reform Economic - Source of solidarity & economic integration to negate the dependency on US
- Brazil’s size and it political ambitions led to persistent tensions with its neighbours
- Brazil has avoided serious conflicts with its neighbours
- Capacity to focus on national development (domestic)
- Sheltered from major international tensions; no necessity to enhance mil cap
- Increase in mil cap would alter BoP
- Does not emphasize on expanding regional influence Regional - Developmentalism: key to Brazil FP during the Cold War period
Though it came under intense criticism in the 1980s, the core premises of the developmentalist model did not change

- 1985-1990: Under Jose Sarney did not make any significant changes to the foreign policy, despite the economic crisis of the 1980s and the democratic transition of 1985

- Tensions were heightened between Brazil and US over economic issues; strengthen its hegemon

- Uphold sovereignty and non-intervention against international norms, despite increasing international pressure The Neoliberalism of the
1990s - Greater awareness to be recognized and respected as international player
accept international norms; missile and arms exports and nuclear proliferation.
- improved bilateral relations with Argentina, + willingness to accept Int norms,
In 1995, Brazil placed export controls on nuclear materials and joined the Missile Technology Control Regime
In 1996, Brazil became a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group
In 1998, Brazil signed NPT Economic Political & Military - shift from the nationalism and defensiveness of the 1960s - 1980s
towards acceptance of international concern for environmental issues
increased receptivity towards the environmental NGOs
growing engagements
1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit). - Adopted a defiant stance, citing non-intervention in internal affairs and the illegitimacy of NGO involvement
- Adopt an active human rights policy
In Aug 1990, Brazil formally accepted the right of the international community to monitor human rights and promote reforms
In July 1992, Brazil ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
In 1995, under Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2003), more emphasis on human rights Environmental Human Rights - Evolution of Brazil FP from the post World War II period till the post Cold War era:
‘coercive socialization’, instead of regional and international enmeshment, or US hegemonic imposition
The dynamics, interactions and interplay of (1) developments within international political system, (2) global economy and (3) transnational civil society
Fundamental of Brazil’s national interests has not changed: ‘Power’ and ‘Autonomy’
Certain degree of skepticism lingering Logistics State in the 21st Century - Contemporary Brazil’s FP is guided by the four key principles
International cooperation
Peaceful settlement of conflicts

- Aims:
Strengthen ties with other S. American countries
Engage in multilateral diplomacy through the UN and the Organization of American States
Act as countervailing force to US political and economic influence in Latin America - 3 Priorities

Active Role in International Institutions
- Permanent seat in UNSC
- Increased UN PKO; part of FP
Regional Engagement in South America
- Economic interests
- Mercosur (3rd largest regional economies bloc
Greater Attention to Europe, Africa and BRICS
- Economic interests RELATIONS WITH US - Overt tensions and crises, due to US regional hegemonic ambition and Brazil’s autonomy principle
- 1990s, gradual change in relations
- absence of strong bilateral engagement
- Brazil has figured very little in US policy statements
- Brazil has emphasized on the notion of ‘universalism’: multilateral coordination and political diversification
- Maintain autonomy by strengthening sub-regional options
- Refused to have meaningful relations with US - Economic interdependence between Brazil and the US
On Mar 19, 2011, President Obama and President Rousseff signed the Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation
Brazil - key US export market
US is key to Brazil’s foreign investment, as well as being a huge market for Brazil’s manufactured products
Need for Brazil to maintain the confidence of its foreign investors; greater reliance and dependence on US dominated financial institutions
limits Brazil’s bargaining power in bilateral relations Political Economic - 3 economic issues that heightened tensions in the late 1990s
US leaders perceived Brazilian leaders not committed in their efforts for economic reform, thus affecting US interests
High level of US restrictions on the import of Brazilian goods.
Defensive agenda to the idea of hemispheric economic integration
- US proposed Free-Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)

- Inherent mutual perception of each other
US frustration with Brazil - US unwillingness to shed its hegemonic ambitions; natural leader in its own backyard, expecting the regional states to play a subordinate role.

Brazil’s resentment derived from the perception that the country is not taken more seriously by the US Summary Relations With China - Diplomatic relations between China and Brazil officially began in 1974 with agreement on the establishment and operation of Brazil’s Embassy in Beijing and China’s Embassy in Brasília

- President Lula’s visit to China, which included 450 Brazilian business representatives

- Brazil and China bilateral relation is essentially centered on economic; economic relationship deepened with formation of BRICS in 2009.

- President Lula considered China to be "Brazil’s most promising business partner and a strategic ally" due to China's "rapidly rising demand for raw materials and agricultural produce"

- Bilateral trade grew from US$ 6.7 billion in 2003 to US$ 36.7 billion in 2009, allowing China to overtake US as Brazil’s largest trading partner - Part of the BRICS in 2009

- Relations reached a historic high point in April 2010, when
President Lula da Silva and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
renewed their governments’ commitment to the “strategic alliance”

- No trade existed two decades after WW II

- Late 1960s: Portugal and India broke off diplomatic relations, and Brazil came to represent Portuguese interests in New Delhi

- In 1964, ties improved with creation of UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and G77, thus further deepened their relations

- Presently, trade between the two states have grown from US$0.4 billion in 1999 to US$2 billion in 2005, and to US$5.6 billion in 2009.

- Trade and economic the dominant factor that bind them together RELATIONS WITH INDIA Brazil Defence Policy - Complex and uncertain security landscape

- Rise of China (most populous country), and India (largest democracy), will shape the international system in an increasingly multi-polar world, though US remains the most powerful actor

- Phenomenon of globalization has increased the ease and access for non-state actors to acquire advanced tech

- Proliferation of WMD continues to undermine global security

- Transnational crimes of different nature, international terrorism and the role of non-state actors

- Rising demand for scarce resources, the effects of climate change, the emergence of new strains of disease, and intra-state conflicts of cultural, ethnic and religious nature International Environment - S. America, distant from world of tension and free from nuclear weapons - relatively peaceful

- Democracy and Regional institutions enhance regional security
Mercosur, the ‘Andean Community of Nations’, the ‘Union of South America Nations’ and the ‘Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization’

- ‘South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone’; expanding the security buffer beyond South America

- Security of a country = Regional Security; Consensus, political harmony and convergence of interests among the South American countries

- State defence is seen as a priority to preserve its national interests, sovereignty and independence

- Brazil to ensure regional security through greater regionalism, while building a credible military to ensure its sovereignty is preserved Regional Environment - Brazil has a long land border (16,885 km), extensive coast and maritime border

- Size affords geostrategic depth; the long land and maritime borders make the task of defence planning complex

- Main conventional threats: Argentina, possible spillover from the drug wars in Colombia

- Amazon and South Atlantic areas are critical due to resources; complicated by long land and maritime borders
armed forces along the borders is necessary
UNCLOS: economic resources area about 4.5 million km2; Blue Amazon’, vital importance to the Country, largest reserve of petroleum and gas, & fishing potential
Control and security of the SLOC and airspace a vital priority for the armed forces

- International terrorism; Brazil supports the resolutions emanated from the UN, recognizing the need for nations to work together

- Participate in peace operations, while respecting the constitutional principles of self-determination, no-intervention and equality among states Threats 1. The warranty of sovereignty, national patrimony
and territorial integrity;

2. The defence of national interests, Brazilian people and goods, and Brazilian resources overseas;

3. The contribution for the preservation of national unity and cohesion;

4. The promotion of regional stability;

5. The contribution for the maintenance of the peace and international security; and

6. The projection of Brazil in the concert of nations and its broader insertion in international decision making processes. Defence Policy Objectives - Published in Dec 2008; 20 years military modernisation plan

- Redeployment and modernisation of military hardware to achieve the strategic objectives of (1) monitoring, (2) mobility, (3) presence and (4) strategic reserve.

- Armed forces to develop scalable capabilities (the notion of ‘elasticity’ - ability to rapidly expand if needed) in order to protect the Amazon and Atlantic oilfields

- Mandatory military service both as a means of ‘elasticity’, as well as building national cohesion and identity

- Defensive nature of the armed forces; participate in internal security enforcement and international peace operations

- For the Army, two key tasks were identified: (1) procurement of new hardware and (2) relocation and reorganisation of forces National Defence Strategy (NDS) - Airforce: guarantee air supremacy, enhanced deterrence and air projection capabilities, esp Amazon basin and Atlantic coast

- Navy: enhance its brown-water capabilities in the Amazon and Paraguay-Parana river systems. Effective deterrent capability: enhance its maritime capabilities from ‘sea denial’ to ‘sea control’ and eventually ‘force projection’

- Autonomous defence industrial base (through technology transfer and strategic partnerships)

- Increase of participation in peacekeeping operations

- Despite the various procurement initiatives and modernisation plans, the Brazil defence policy is unlikely to change drastically over the medium term (expensive phase)

- NDS: Brazil views strategic threats, national security objectives and the ways in which the country will harness its military power to achieve its strategic objectives National Defence Strategy (NDS) Conclusion - FP shifted from ‘inward-looking’ policy in the Cold War era, to more ‘outward-looking’ and more receptive towards international norms

- Leadership, external international political system, domestic civil society, global economy and IT revolution - Evolution of the Brazil’s foreign policy

- Brazil's FP and DP is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power

- Brazil’s FP has been premised on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries Economic - Significant improvement in relations between Brazil and Argentina; hydroelectric resources of the Parana river and nuclear issues

Tension heightened in 1975 - signing of the Brazil-West German nuclear agreement

Late 1980s - signing of various agreements to enhance greater economic cooperation and integration

Greater economic interdependence led to improved bilateral ties; greater regional security with arms-control agreements, shifts in military doctrines toward a defensive posture and reduced level of defence spending

Set the conditions for greater regional integration after the Cold War era - Early 1990s, economic crisis, end of Cold War and Globalization: Brazil to open up and embrace international norms, economic reform

- 1990-1992: Fernando Collor de Mello - economic reform from inward orientated economic policy towards trade liberalization, privatization, easing of government regulations and shifts in policy toward multilateral trade

- Greater integration in the world economy and willingness to embrace Int econ norms
accept the GATT and WTO in 1995; shift from NIEO to LIEO The Neoliberalism of the 1990s Economic
- Brazil matters much less to US as compared to Mexico, the Caribbean, or even the Andean region of South America

- Reach of US hegemony will continue to act as a major constraint on Brazil’s FP

- Brazil’s FP is very much dependent on US FP towards Brazil and the South America
- Moving forward, likely to see Brazil increasing her engagement with BRICS countries, esp. China and India, as well as EU and possibly ASEAN, as Brazil seeks to consolidate and strengthen its economic power

- Special relationship with US is likely to continue to move from strength to strength

- In her pursuit to secure a permanent seat in the UNSC; Brazil playing bigger role in the international community, especially in the area of peace operations

- With greater economic interests at stake, especially in the Amazon and South Atlantic areas, greater political will and emphasis to realize the objectives set out in the defence policy and the NDS Outlook
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