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Year 10 - Tourism closing the Development Gap
Transcript of Year 10 - Tourism closing the Development Gap
-To understand how we measure development
- To understand what the differences are between development in MEDCs and LEDCs
- To start to understand how tourism can help to reduce the development gap (Advantages/ Disadvantages) How can tourism reduce the development gap? Development Indicators - How do we measure development Advantages/Disadvantages of using Indicators Advantages Have a go at answering these questions Extension: What are we looking at? 1. Which country has today the lowest death rate during the 1st year of life (i.e. infant mortality): Singapore, Sweden or Venezuela? http://tinyurl.com/gapquiz01 2. In which country is the average income per person highest today: Botswana, Egypt or Moldova? http://tinyurl.com/gapquiz03 3. In which country do people live the longest on average today: Botswana, Egypt or Moldova? http://tinyurl.com/gapquiz04 4. Which country has the fewest number of children per woman today: Tunisia, Bangladesh or Argentina? http://tinyurl.com/gapquiz06 Using the worksheet cut out the three headings then rearrange the sentences under each of the headings Increased Tourism means: As money flows into the country from tourism: Other advantages of increased wealth include: - Increased taxes for governments to spend on improving social and economic conditions
- A better educated population who will set up industries and have a wider range of job opportunities
- More money to spend on infrastructure such as roads, ports and airports in order to increase trade
- Increased trade attracts more industry and foreign investment
- Increased business opportunities through the multiplier effect -More money is spent in businesses - this is know as the multiplier effect
-More people working in tourism spend more money in their local communities
-People can afford to improve their living conditions -Greater mixing of different cultures
-Less tension between rich and poor, and increasing government stability
- Greater awareness of the importance of the environment and investment in environmental protection Development often takes place in an uneven way. We can compare one country to another. To assess the economic development of a country, geographers use economic indicators. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/development/contrasts_development_video.shtml Human development index: This indicator was devised by the United Nations in 1990 and uses a number of indicators of development to give each country in the world a development score. The score ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 being the most developed. Wealth, health and education are calculated each year. If a country is higher up the HDI table than the GDP table then it must be successfully investing in health and education. If it is below then there is room for improvement. Write these definitions into you books The most common indicator of development is to look at the wealth of a country, and compare it to others Stretch and challenge: What other Indicators can measure development? Interesting Fact: No country has reached a score of 1, although some, such as Japan and Canada have attained marks well over 0.9. What are there advantages/disadvantages of using development indicators? Spend 2 minutes thinking of the advantages/disadvantages of GDP and HDI Look at these two photos identify whether it is an economic or human development indicator The education system in a country is a good measure of its development. The population of a developed nation will have a high level of literacy, numeracy and computer skills. Tokyo has attained high levels of development by focusing resources on educating people to work in its high-tech industries. Mapping GNP The Brandt Line - North/South Divide Disadvantages Gross Domestic Product (GDP): this is the value of all goods and services produced within a country. It is usually measured in US$ and calculated per person. This makes comparisons between different countries easier.
Gross National Product (GNP). The difference is that GNP also includes goods and services produced by that country overseas. GDP: HDI: GDP: HDI: Easy to calculate from government figures Easy to compare countries, often used to determine aid payments. Can be manipulated by governments who want to receive aid Does not take into account informal economies in LEDCs Can hide inequalities as it does not show the distribution of wealth A high GDP does not necessarily mean there is fair distribution throughout the country.
Cancer and heart disease is very rare in the developing world yet are the biggest killers in the Western World. Good composite indicator - gives us more of an idea than just GDP or life expectancy If you created a map showing GNP and HDI together they would be very similar. A country must have wealth before it is able to spend it on improving the quality of life of its people. HDI serves to illustrate the potential development of a country's living standards as it might take time for an increase in expected years of education to affect GDP and living standards How can LEDCs help bridge the development gap? Draw out this graph on your whiteboard - how would this graph look in 2050 (Draw this) - Explain Why? A poor country can close the development gap by developing its manufacturing industries and exploiting its natural resources so that it exports more and imports less.
A poor country can attract aid and investment from governments and transnational companies in rich countries.
Developing a tourist industry allows a poor country to earn money from its climate, landscape, plants and animals. MEDCs are countries which have a high standard of living and a large GDP. LEDCs are countries with a low standard of living and a much lower GDP. The Brandt Line is a visual depiction of the north/south divide. It was created in the 1970s by Willy Brandt Activity: Map the Brandt line onto your maps use the atlases to help you This is the GDP map created in the 1970s This is a more recent version Extension:
What are the differences between the two maps? In another colour map the additional countries A way of depicting GDP on a world map is by dividing MEDCs up as North (the developed countries) and LEDCs up as the South (the developing countries).