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The Energy Systems
Transcript of The Energy Systems
What is the point of the 3 Energy Systems?
To provide energy for ATP resynthesis
All three systems have the same goal
But they differ in POWER and CAPACITY
This, in turn, affects the INTENSITY and DURATION of exercise
Now, let's look at the 3 systems in more detail
The first system
Used by athletes competing in SHORT DURATION, HIGH-INTENSITY activities
Fastest RATE of ATP resynthesis
Smallest yield of ATP during exercise. (small CAPACITY)
Predominant system for only 6-10 seconds, but is dominant for events in total duration of 20 seconds (eg. shot put, 100m sprint, 200m sprint)
The ATP-CP system replenishes ATP through the breakdown of body fuel creatine phosphate (CP)
After the body runs out of stored ATP and CP stores, the second Energy System we use is the....
The predominant energy system during SHORT DURATION, HIGH-INTENSITY speed events.
Able to resynthesise ATP at a fast rate, but not as fast as the ATP-CP system.
Predominant during maximal-intensity efforts of 30 to 60 seconds, but is the dominant system for events up to 75 seconds in duration (eg. 400m running etc.)
Just like the ATP-CP system, the Anaerobic Glycolysis also has a limited capacity to resynthesise ATP due to fatiguing by-products (Lactic Acid).
The Anaerobic Glycolysis process is an oxygen independent pathway that produces energy from the breakdown of CHO (muscle glycogen and blood glucose)
Complex process which has a number of steps, hence a SLOWER rate of ATP resynthesis as compared with the ATP-CP system.
Lactate and hydrogen ions are the by-products in this breakdown.
The last energy system is the....
Predominant system in longer distance events and at rest.
What this system lacks in POWER, it makes up for in DURATION.
Unlimited CAPACITY to resynthesise ATP, but a reduction in POWER and speed.
Important system for recovery of both anaerobic systems
Able to breakdown more than one fuel type:
Aerobic glycolysis: breakdown of CHO.
Predominant during activity from 1 minute to 2 hours
Aerobic lipolysis: breakdown of fats.
Predominant during ultra-endurance events, lasting more than 4 hours
Process is very complex. 3 different stages of metabolism, which result in the production of water, carbon dioxide and heat.
So, in summary...
The 3 energy systems are the:
-produces less than one ATP molecule (small YIELD)
-high POWER, high INTENSITY
-produces 2 ATP molecules
-slightly higher YIELD and CAPACITY than ATP-CP
-high INTENSITY, high POWER
Aerobic Energy System:
-produces 136-138 ATP molecules
-high YIELD, high CAPACITY
-low POWER, low INTENSITY
Stage 1: Glycolysis
BOTH Fats and CHO breakdown separately in the presence of oxygen.
Very little ATP is produced.
CHO Breakdown: Glycogen is broken down into Pyruvic Acid
FAT Breakdown: Triglycerides are broken down into Glycerol and 3 Free Fatty Acids (FFAs)
Stage 2: Krebs Cycle
Pyruvic Acid is broken down into Carbon Dioxide, which in turn releases energy for ATP resynthesis.
More ATP is produced.
Stage 3: Electron Transport System or Chain (ETS or ETC)
Final stage which involves water, heat and large amounts of ATP being produced for muscular contraction and movement.
Largest amount of ATP produced in the Aerobic System.
Aerobic Respiration via the Aerobic Energy System
Glucose + Oxygen ------> Carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP)