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Apartheid in South Africa
Transcript of Apartheid in South Africa
and more . The Beginning
of Apartheid Nelson Mandela is one of the world's most revered statesmen, who led the struggle to replace the apartheid regime of South Africa with a multi-racial democracy. His story gives hope that reconciliation is possible. Mandela’s ability to build bridges between different groups of South Africans secured a stable future for South Africans. *SA->Colonized English & Dutch (Boers) -> XVII *After independence from England, the Dutch came to power-> series of segregationist laws favoring whites. Apartheid (Afrikaans "the status of being apart") was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the NP governments of SA (1948-1994), under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants were curtailed and white supremacy was maintained. South Africa: Apartheid Brief History
1990 Brief History
1939 Brief History
1931-1934 Brief History
1913 Brief History
1910 Brief History
1961 /May 31 Brief History Brief History
1994 Segregation of the black population started (black majority being restricted to certain areas totalling about 13% of the country). .
Following a whites-only referendum, the country became a republic and left the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state, and the last Governor- General became State President. Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. In 1990 the National Party government took the
first step towards dismantling discrimination
when it lifted the ban on the African National
Congress and other political organizations. The party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom. Brief History
1948 The National Party was elected to power
(this is the time when it is considered that Apartheid started). In 1934, the South African Party and National Party
merged to form the United Party seeking reconciliation
between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1931 the union was effectively granted
independence from the United Kingdom The Nationalist Government classified all peoples into three races and
developed rights and limitations for each. While the White minority enjoyed the highest standard of
living in all of Africa, the Black majority remained
disadvantaged by almost every standard The African National Congress (ANC) was a major resistance movement.
Apartheid became increasingly controversial, and some Western
nations and institutions began to boycott doing business with
South Africa because of its racial policies and oppression of
civil rights. Brief History
1994-Now South Africa held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. Nelson Mandela Jailed for 27 years, he emerged to become the country's first black president and to play a leading role in the drive for peace in other spheres of conflict. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Nelson Mandela He was born in 1918 into the Xhosa-speaking Thembu people in a small village in the eastern Cape of South Africa. In South Africa, he is often called by his clan name - "Madiba". Born Rolihlahla Dalibhunga, he was given his English name, Nelson, by a teacher at his school. Nelson Mandela He joined the African National Congress in 1944, first as an activist, then as the founder and president of the ANC's Youth League. Mr Mandela and Mr Tambo campaigned against apartheid, the system devised by the all-white NP which oppressed the black majority. Nelson Mandela 1956-> Mr Mandela was charged with treason, along with 155 others, but the charges against him were dropped after a 4 year trial. Resistance to apartheid grew, mainly against the new Pass Laws Nelson Mandela In the winter of 1964 he was sentenced to life in prison between 1968-1969, Mandela's mother died and his eldest son died in a car crash, but he was not allowed to attend the funerals. Nelson Mandela In 1980, Mr Tambo, who was in exile, launched an international campaign to release Mr Mandela. 1990, President FW de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC, and Mr Mandela was released from prison and talks on forming a new multi-racial democracy for South Africa began. Nelson Mandela Mandela presented the people of SA with a leader in their struggle, providing the inspiration needed for a drastic change It may be possible to oppress a group of people, but it is impossible to oppress the spread of ideas. Mandela's Legacy Mandela's Legacy Apartheid Apartheid Apartheid Apartheid ->not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in "White SA" without a permit (homelands). Apartheid The end of Apartheid 1986: SA government tried to destroy those who resisted 1948: racial discrimination was institutionalized, and touched every aspect of social life 1950: Population Registration Act->
formalized racial classification-> introduced ID Department of Home Affairs-> classification. Non-compliance with the race laws were dealt with harshly. White
Coloured *Discovery of diamonds(1900)->resulted in an English invasion-> led to the Boer War. *NP invented apartheid->to strengthen their control
over E&S system and maintain white domination Apartheid Later-> laws -> large scale 1951: Bantu Authorities Act
->Homelands (ind. States) ->lose their citizenship in SA and any right of involvement w/Parliament Apartheid Members of the same family found
themselves in different race groups. Coloureds->forced to live in separately
->received inferior education Voting rights ->denied Townships->blacks were relocated in their
own towns -> shacks.
blacks couldn't be in white areas after dark 1949: Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 1950: Immorality Act
(criminal offense) 1953: Reservation of
Separate Amenities Act
(municipal grounds reserved)
-> inferior services ->Transport and civil facilities were segregated. ->conditions in white hospitals were better than in overcrowded and under-staffed black ones ->no restaurants or hotels admitted them *Children suffered malnutrition and sanitary problems ->not allowed to buy liquor, except state-produced beer Apartheid *major impact on women (racial & gender discrim.) *few or no legal rights, no access to education and no right to own property *Jobs were hard to find (agricultural or domestic), low wages 1953: Public Safety and Criminal Law Amendment Act (states of emergency; increased penalties against protestants) During the states of emergency, anyone could be detained without a hearing. Thousands died in custody. Sharpeville, 1960 Townships->center for black groups who resisted the government-> ANC. Government kept blacks separate and discouraged their culture. Independence-> Swaziland, Lesotho, Botswana, Angola and Mozambique. The end of Apartheid ->arrested, tortured and imprisoned>20,000 people ->As SA continued their fight, countries around the world pressured the government to abolish apartheid. ->ANC was finally granted status as a political party and Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1990. The End ->slow dismantling of the Apartheid system. The end of Apartheid ANC won 62.65% of the votes->
19 political parties-> 22 million ->04/94 the first democratic elections were held in SA, with people of all races being able to vote. ->1992->whites referendum approved the reform process. Nelson Mandela Location The Capital:
Capetown Politics Economy Tourism Literature Singer Miriam Makeba Health Religion Languages *Ranked as upper-middle income economy
by the WB
*It is considered a newly industrialised country
*High rate of poverty and income inequality Personalities Nadine Gordimer Rate of HIV infections in Africa: An estimated 5.6 million people are living with HIV Provinces since
1994 Parliamentary Republic: 3 capital cities:
Cape Town (Parliament, legislative capital)
Pretoria: the administrative capital
Bloemfontein: seat of Supreme Court of Appeal
(judicial capital). Actress Charlize Theron JM Coetzee Breyten Breytenbach Andre Brink Health An estimated 500,000 women are raped every year Highest child and baby rape incidences in the world