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Introduction to Library Research & Scholarly Sources, Part 2
Transcript of Introduction to Library Research & Scholarly Sources, Part 2
The "average Wikipedian" is:
from majority-Christian, developed country
student or white-collar worker
Does Wikipedia pass the CRAAP test?
Does your topic require current information?
Date of publication?
Revisions or updates?
If a website, are links functional?
1) Use a
to develop a research topic/question
2) Evaluate research evidence using the
The "Information Cycle"
To inform with facts and analysis
To sell products and services to general public
Trade or Professional
Scholarly and Peer-Reviewed
To educate and help professionals stay up-to-date in a particular industry
To present original research and analysis to the scholarly community
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Short articles with simple structure and professional terminology
Practical, condensed content
Visual appeal (colour, photographs, illustrations, etc.)
Advertising aimed at industry professionals
Brief or lengthy articles with plain language
Objective or subjective point of view
Glossy format with a lot of colour and photographs
Extensive advertising aimed at broad audience
Lengthy articles with complex structure and formal, technical language
Analytical content with narrow focus
Plain format with minimal colour
Images only used to support content (graphs, tables, etc.)
Levels of Research Evidence
Applicable to the research topic or question?
Too simple or too advanced?
Appropriate for its intended use?
Author, publisher, source or sponsor?
Qualifications or expertise?
Conflict of interest or personal bias ?
Supported by valid, reliable evidence?
Editor or review process?
Factual errors or spelling mistakes?
EBP is "the integration of
best research evidence
with clinical expertise and patient values”
As a reference source (encyclopedia) for basic facts and introductory information:
What is a Concept Map?
a political issue
a human right
a legal right
malware and spyware (virus software)
Internet privacy is...
Internet privacy means...
1) Write down the research topic or question....
2) Around the topic, write everything that comes to mind when you ask...
In social networks...
credit card fraud
...key figures or groups
...theorists or scholars
(Facebook, Twitter, etc.)
Why is it important?
What is good "evidence"?
The CRAAP Test
What is evidence-based practice?
market research (online profiling, data mining)
information integrity and security
Individual and group privacy issues...
National privacy issues...
U.S. - Iraq war
How to maintain internet privacy....
legislation (i.e. anti-spam)
public policy and advocacy
cybercrime or political resistance?
National Security Agency (NSA)
(Sackett, Strauss, Richardson, Rosenberg & Haynes, 2000, p. 1)
civil and human rights abuses
find and organize questions/ideas
investigate and record aspects of a topic
reveal patterns, themes and associations
generate search terms/keywords
Find the Best Source...
With a partner or in a small group:
1) Form a
question or argument
from your concept map
2) Find a
source of evidence
to answer or support it
3) Evaluate with the CRAAP test. Consider these
should the source be?
What is the most appropriate
? What is the
of the source?
What is the
? Are there flaws or limitations?
Who is the
? Are there biases or conflicts of interest?
Women make up
less than 15%
of contributors to Wikipedia.
This "gender gap" means "articles with particular interest to women tend to be shorter, even when controlling for variables that affect article length" (2014, para. 2-3).
Information Sources "Spectrum"
Scholarly books and journals
Multiple Cases = Highly Generalizable
Intervention can be used in most instances of the population
Individual Cases = Less Reliable
Intervention requires more research to confirm effectiveness
Celebrity gossip (i.e. People magazine)
Trade or professional journals and magazines
Peer-reviewed, research-based articles
Practice-based news, research and advice
Informative and news-based, of greater cultural value
Entertainment and opinion-based, of lower cultural value
Special interest magazines
Reliable websites (i.e. government, non-profit organizations)
Scientific Peer-Reviewed Research Articles
Case Study or Case Report
Tone and Characteristics
To present findings of original research studies or experiments
Technical, formal language with scientific structure:
Introduction, Hypothesis or Objective
Background or Literature Review
Research Method(s) or Design
Results or Findings
Discussion, Analysis and/or Conclusion
To present an original argument or interpretation
Technical, formal language
Refers to new or established theories/analysis and abstract principles related to specific field of knowledge
Substantial list of references
Technical, formal language with terminology found in subject area, field of study, or profession
To systematically summarize, analyze and/or discuss previously published research
To provide analysis of an individual unit (person, group, condition or event)
Technical and formal with terminology found in subject area, field of study or profession
Common in the social and health sciences
Types of Articles
Opinion-Based (Editorial, Reply, Debate, Commentary, Personal Essay)
News (Updates, Announcement, Trends)
Simple, plain language intended for a broad audience
Sources quoted in-text (i.e."According to Calgary's Chief of Police...")
No reference list
To present opinions and subjective, personal analysis of a specific topic or issue.
Persuasive language and tone, with intent to convince reader to adopt a certain perspective
Frequently contains bias
Rarely includes references
To inform readers of current events, trends and developments
Systematic/Literature Review or Meta-Analysis
Theoretical Peer-Reviewed Research Article
Reference and general works (encyclopedias, textbooks, etc.)
Basic facts and background information
Introductory subject overviews and analysis