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Prosthesis

Patra P.
by

Patra Pookarnjanamorakot

on 1 July 2013

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Transcript of Prosthesis

Prosthesis
A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a
missing part
of the body or to make a part of the body work better.
Prosthesis
Prostheses are generally used to replace parts lost by
injury (traumatic)
or missing from
birth (congenital)
or to supplement defective body parts.
Artificial heart valves are in common use with artificial hearts and lungs seeing less common use but under active technology development.
Inside the body
Other medical devices and aids that can be considered prosthetics include hearing aids, artificial eyes, palatal obturator, gastric bands, and dentures.
Other examples...
Types of prosthetics
An artificial limb that replaces a leg missing below the knee.
1. Transtibial prosthesis (BK)
- An artificial limb that replaces a leg missing above the knee.
- A transfemoral amputee must use approximately 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs.[2]
2. Transfemoral prosthesis (AK)
- An artificial limb that replaces a leg missing above the knee.
- A transfemoral amputee must use approximately 80% more energy to walk than a person with two whole legs.
2. Transfemoral prosthesis (AK)
- An artificial limb that replaces an arm missing below the elbow.
- Two main types of prosthetics are available.
- Cable operated limbs
- Myoelectric arms
3. Transradial prosthesis (BE)
- An artificial limb that replaces an arm missing above the elbow.
- Transhumeral amputees experience some of the same problems as transfemoral(AK) amputees
- (due to the complexities associated with the movement of the elbow.)
4. Transhumeral prosthesis (AE)
Hide the deformity.
In the Dark ages,…
Modern Prosthetic Limbs
The
internal frame
or skeleton of the prosthetic limb.
The pylon must provide
structural support
.
Basic component of the prosthetic limbs:
The pylon
Pylon
The socket
Socket
Suction system
Harness system
Keeps the prosthetic limb attached to the body.
The suspension system
Controls & Costs
Careful attention is also paid to the
structure of the patient's residual limb
, including the location of any muscles, tendons and bones. The health of the patient and
condition of the skin
are other factors taken into account when designing the prosthesis.

Physical therapy
after an amputation and prosthetic device fitting
Example: a prosthetic arm can be controlled through
a cable attached with a strap or harness
to the opposite, healthy shoulder.
These are
controlled by cables
connecting them to elsewhere on the body.
Can be used in
damp or dirty environments
.


Body-powered prosthetic limbs
Prosthetic Limb control
- These are
powered with motors
and can be controlled by the patient in several ways.
- The
switch control method
allows a patient to move his or her prosthetic device by
toggling switches or buttons
.
Externally powered prosthetic limbs
The signals are
translated into active movement
in the prosthesis
The
muscle contractions
are
detected
by the electrodes

Myoelectric muscles
in the residual limb can generate
small electrical signals
when they
contract
.
Electrodes
placed on the surface of the skin.
Myoelectric
- Weigh more
- Cannot be exposed to excessive moisture
Downside of Myoelectric prosthesis
Transradial and transtibial
£4,800 - £6,400

Transfemoral and transhumeral
£8,000-£12,000
(can sometimes reach costs of £28,000)
Cost
Thank you.
Middle Ages
1800
2013
Eyptian Dynasty (2750-2625 B.C.)
-Oldest evidence of prosthetics was found on a mummified Egytian noblewomen.
-It was made of wood and leather.
Middle Ages
Lost limb = hideous deformity <<< hide it!
Made from iron >>> heavy, not very useful!
Roman Empire
- The evidence found was made out of copper and wood.
- It was found in Capri, Italy.
1800
Warfare - the most common reason for amputation at that time.
Modern world
Modern world
300 B.C. (Roman Empire)
Where are we now?
Prosthetics for animals!
2750 B.C. (Egyptian Dynasty)
The History of Prosthetics
!!!
Transfermoral
Transradial
Third world prosthetics
Schnailove's story
Recycling!
Some charities
Limbless association: http://www.limbless-association.org
STEPS: http://www.steps-charity.org.uk/
BLESMA: http://www.blesma.org/
FASTUK: http://www.fastuk.org/home.php

Prosthetics Outreach Foundation: http://www.pofsea.org/
Full transcript