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Specific Learning Disorder
Transcript of Specific Learning Disorder
Children with SLD self-reported poorer emotional well-being, lower self-esteem and satisfaction in their relationships with family and friends. School functioning was not reported by these children as an area of concern (Ginieri-Coccossis et al. 2012).
Why the change in name?
Broader category of SLD ensures that fewer affected individuals will go unidentified, while the detailed specifiers will help clinicians effectively target services and treatment (American Psychiatric Association 2013).
SLD assessed in educational setting
DSM-5 trying to be sensitive to education laws and school guidelines
SLD Diagnostic Criteria
All 4 diagnostic criteria must be met based on a clinical synthesis of the individual’s history, school reports, and psycho-educational assessments.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA:
American Psychiatric Publishing.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Specific Learning Disorders. Retrieved October 19, 2013. http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Specific%20Learning%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2012). ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs, Third Edition. Alexandria, VA:ASCA.
Davis Dyslexia Association International. (2007). When the school refuses to use the word Dyslexia. Retrieved October 18, 2013. http://faq.dyslexia.com/cgi-bin/faq_wiki.pl?When_The_School_Refuses_To_Use_The_Word_Dyslexia
Ginieri-Coccossis, M., Rotsika, V., Skevington, S., Papaevangelou, S., Malliori, M., Tomaras, V. and Kokkevi, A. (2013), Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39: 581–591. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01369.x
Rotsika V, Coccossis M, Vlassopoulos M, Papaeleftheriou E, Sakellariou K, Anagnostopoulos DC, Kokkevi A, Skevington S. (2011). Does the subjective quality of life of children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) agree with their parents' proxy reports? Qual Life Res. 2011 Oct;20(8):1271-8. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9857-z.
Special Education Division, California Department of Education. (2009). Determining Specific Learning Disability Eligibility Using Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI2). Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.
Specific Learning Disorder
Academic Skills Disorders DSM-3
Learning Disorders DSM-4-TR
Specific Learning Disorder
New criteria is broader to increase diagnostic accuracy and intervention efficacy.
Past criteria did not allow 3 the domains of learning to interrelate.
A. Difficulties learning and using academic skills, with one or more of the following symptoms persistent for at least 6 months, despite intervention :
1. Inaccurate or slow and effortful word reading.
2. Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read.
3. Difficulties with spelling.
4. Difficulties with written expression.
5. Difficulties mastering number sense.
6. Difficulties with mathematical reasoning.
B. The individual’s performance of affected academic skills is well below average for age, causing significant interference with academic or occupational performance, or with daily living.
C. Onset during early formal schooling, but may not fully manifest until demand for affected academic skills limit the individual's capacity.
D. Learning difficulties are not attributed other disorders or environmental factors.
Specify all academic domains and subskills that are impaired.
Including: intellectual disabilities, uncorrected visual or auditory acuity, lack of proficiency in language of academic instruction, or inadequate educational instruction.
SLD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects brain’s ability to PERCEIVE or PROCESS verbal or non-verbal information efficiently and accurately.
Individuals typically demonstrate normal levels of intellectual functioning (estimated IQ score >70± 5 points).
Specify Current Severity: Mild, Moderate, Severe.
315.00 (F81.0) With impairment in reading:
Word reading accuracy
Reading rate or fluency
(e.g. single words read aloud incorrectly; difficulty sounding out words; guessing words; not understanding sequencing, relationships, or inferences)
315.1 (F8.81) With impairment in written expression:
Grammar and punctuation accuracy
Clarity or organization of written expression
(e.g. add, omit or substitute vowels or consonants; many grammatical or punctuation errors; poor paragraph organization)
315.1 (F81.2) With impairment in mathematics:
Memorization of arithmetic facts
Accurate or fluent calculation
Accurate math reasoning
(e.g. poor understanding of number relationships and magnitude; counts on fingers instead of recalling math facts; severe difficulty applying mathematical concepts, facts or procedures to solve problems)
Across all 3 academic domains (reading, writing, and mathematics), 5-15% of school-age children are affected.
Prevalence in adults is unknown, approx. 4%.
Gender: More common in males than females (about 2:1 to 3:1)
2.4 million children diagnosed with SLD, and receive Special Ed services; Make up 41% of Special Ed pop.
(IDEA Part B Child Count, 2010)
Mothers tend to have negative evaluations of their child's academic well being. (Rotskia et al. 2011)
Manifestation of symptoms change with age.
Learning difficulties can be persistent or shift across life span.
SLD in Education
"Schools must place children in "eligibility categories." They can't "diagnose" them..."
(Davis Dyslexia Association International 2007).
School Counselor's role in RtI2 process
"The school counselor’s knowledge of child development and the field’s emphasis on working with the whole child will be invaluable in developing research-based interventions in the area of social–emotional learning."
CA Dept. of Education 2009
Determining SLD Eligibility:
Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI2)
RTI2 has two goals: prevent academic problems and determine students with LD.
13 Special Ed eligibility categories
Severe learning difficulties fall under Specific Learning Disabilities
The terms Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia are not as common in edu (more medical than educational)
Edu. learning difficulties DISABILITIES
Medical conditions DISORDERS
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 (IDEA)
Specific Learning Disability Criteria
I. Presence of severe discrepancy between measures of intellectual ability and one or more of the following areas of achievement:
Basic Reading Skills
II. The discrepancy identified is directly related to a processing disorder:
Sensory Motor Skills
Cognitive Abilities (including association, conceptualization and expression)
III. (I) and (II) are not primarily the result of:
A visual, hearing, or motor disability;
Environmental or economic disadvantage; or
Limited English proficiency.
RTI2 process consistent with ASCA National Model
Same steps for conducting closing-the-achievement gap activities
ASCA National Model, 3rd Edition, pg 73