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Transcript of Islamic Empire
known as the Arabian Peninsula in a time
when many of the people of that land
where Nomadic Tribes or Bediouns Muhammed was part Qurash tribe and part of the respected Hashim family Muhammed's first wife was Khadijah
but his favorite wife was Aisha Allah Allah (God) used the angel
Gabriel to communicate with
Muhammed The Qur'an is a set of insturctions on how to live everyday life The Qur'an was written down by Muhammed's followers after his death Hadith - book of the sayings of Muhammed written by his successors Important Books in the Muslim Religion Shari'a complex body of laws which provide guidelines for the conduct of Muslim societies Ulema - Muslim theologians and legal experts who interpreted and explained Islamic cannons History of Muhammed The Muslim Religion Money was left in the shine during the early years of Muhammed Kab'ah- a cube-shaped shrine in Mecca which is empty When Muhammed tried to change this the government got angry because they would no longer get the peoples' money this way Kharijites - all organized along patriarchal line This serves as the principle means of salvation for Muslims 5 Pillars
All were either related to Muhammad or had been his close compatriots "rightly guided" caliphs - the first four caliphs Umayyed Caliphs - the family who were politically strong that took over after the first four caliphs They opposed Husayan
Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet Prayer five times a day The giving of alms
The pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime.
Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the Ramadan People and Groups of Significance Umma Islamic Community (Community of Believers). Muhammad left Mecca and established Medina where he set up an Umma and then made his army. Mecca feared the new religion would threaten both their preeminent political and social status Hijrah - in 622 Muhammad and his followers fled from the merchants of Mecca and went
to Mediana Tarik the Berber - smashed the Visigoths and incorporated half of Spain (Muslim Commander) Moors - European name for Islamic tribes in Spain Husayn - the younger brother of Hasan and younger son of Ali.
Mu’aqiyah had his son, Yazid, accepted as his heir Thereby instituted the procedure of hereditary accession Fought Husayn at Kerbala He was the leader of those who had continued to support Ali’s cause and to oppose Umayyad rule.
Husayn refused to recognize the legitimacy of Yazid.
Was badly outnumber in a fight with Yazid at Kerbala. He was killed and martyred there.
HHasan - the older broterof Husayn and eldest son of Ali
Where Husayn was buried
Major point of pilgrimage for the Shi’I
Sunni - The majority group in Islam
Shi'I - Makes up a sizable portion of the populations in present-day Iraq, Lebanon, the eastern Arabian Peninsula, and some other areas of the Islamic world.
Twelvers - To them Muhammad al-Muntazar did not die but went into occultation
They believe that the caliphate should go to the most qualified individual
Not necessarily pass to the kin of Muhammad
They ultimately split into a number of different sects, the most important of them being the Twelvers
A state in which other religious leaders could commune with him while he remained invisible.
TThey believed that Muhammad al-Muntazar would return as the Mahdi (the rightly guided one) to save the world.
Muhammad al Muntazar - the twelfth Iman Zayids - the fourth Iman, was the last real Imam.
Imama - the recognized leader Abbasids - One group who were led by the great-grandson of the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle. Ayatollahs Mullahs established a hierarchy in which particularly knowledgeable and esteemed mullahs became known as Ayatollahs. Mullahs - clergy, assumed a special role within the Shi’I communities, which continued to look to the clergy for direction and leadership.
He is said to have disappeared into a cave in 878 They also established a hierarchy in which particularly knowledgeable and esteemed mullahs became known as Ayatollahs.
They became known as Zayiads.
In the contemporary era are found mostly in Yemen.
They gathered support from the Shi’i and from disgruntled groups in Irag and Iran.
In 747 the Abbasids called for an open revolt against the Umayyad caliphate and within three years had defeated the Umayyads at a decisive battle near the Tigris river.
In 750 Damascus fell and the Abbasids promptly attempted to eliminate all members of the Umayyad family.
Abd al Rahman I - fled to Spain where he established a new dynasty that lasted for nearly 300 years
1. Holy War on behalf of the Muslim faith 2. The struggle of everyday life. To avoid temptations and do good daily
The Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu Bakr Umar Uthman b. Affan Ali b. Abi Talib Important Battles Battle of Siffin - In northern Syria, In 657 Umayyad family challenged Ali’s leadership. Battle of the Camel - in which many of the original followers of the prophet were killed, Battle of Yarmuk - where the forces of the Roman emperor were defeated in 637. As a result Jerusalem was incorporated into the Muslim Empire in 638. Women and children accompanied the armies. The women even joined in on the fighting. Byzantine soldiers were shocked to see women on the battlefield. At Yarmuk, when the Arab army moved to retreat, the women seized swords and tend posts and urged the soldiers to rejoin the battle. The result was a complete rout of the Byzantine Army. Aisha was forced to retire to Medina where she died of natural causes several decades later. Although the battle was essentially a standoff, more and more provinces aligned with Mu’awiyah, who clearly held the preponderance of power. Islamic Greeting Cards. N.p., 17 Sept. 2004. Web. 26 Apr. 2010. <http://www.2mfm.org/pictures/img353.htm>.
NY Tranfer's Map. N.p., 7 Dec. 2001. Web. 26 Apr. 2010. <http://www.blythe.org/afghan-maps/arab_pennisula.gif>.
History Text Book - World History Vol 1