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4.1 History of Health Care

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Kristen Jahns

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of 4.1 History of Health Care


Chapter 4
Health Care Industry

List 2
health care trends
leading to

allied health professions
.

Describe
2 allied health professions
.
Objectives

Key Points

Increased medical technology & knowledge:
need new allied health professionals

20th Century
insulin
antibiotics
new vaccinations
eradication of small pox
computers
decoding DNA


Key Points

Key Points


Dark Ages:
medical knowledge lost;
many epidemics

Renaissance:
medical schools; apothecaries
study of anatomy, blood circulation,
printing press





Knowledge of health care history

increases understanding
of current practices
.


Key Points

Future of Health Care

ERADICATING
Polio
Curing
AIDS, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, genetic disease

Reducing
malaria, influenza, leprosy, sleeping sickness

Better treatments
depression, dementia
Improved electronics
paralysis

Past and Future of Health Care
Past achievements—
Antibiotics
Immunizations
Medications
Organ transplants
Increased life expectancy
Medical technology
Computerized medicine
Decoding DNA and genetics

Evolution of allied Health Professions

New
health care occupations

Comprise 60%
of health care workforce

Work with
physicians, nurses, & dentists
Advancement of Nursing
Florence Nightingale
nurse training
importance of environment, sanitation, cleanliness

Clara Barton
Red Cross
Lillian Wald
Visiting nurses service

FIGURE 4.5 Florence Nightingale caring for patients
Source: 19th era/Alamy

FIGURE 4.4 Using a high-tech computer to diagnose a medical condition
Source: Luis Louro/Shutterstock

20th & 21st Centuries
1980's:
SMALL POX ERADICATED

Vaccine
:

hepatitis B


HIV virus identified

kidney
dialysis

1990's:

Animal

cloning

(sheep) Vaccine:

Hepatitis A


2000's: DNA decoded, stem cell research
Vaccine:
HPV
(virus -> cervical & oral cancer)
HIV treatment
MRI
scans
Robotic
surgeries, less invasive surgeries

20th Century
1910's:
Discovery of
viruses
1920's:
Insulin


Sigmund Freud:
psychiatry
1930's:
First blood bank
Antibiotics
: "sulfa" & penicillin

Vaccines
: whooping cough, TB, rabies
tetanus, diptheria, yellow fever
1940's:
Ultrasound
; influenza vaccine

19th Century
18th Century
Observation

of patients
Advancements
in medical science
Increased understanding
of diseases

16th & 17th Centuries
Apothecaries
(pharmacies) started
Trade

between East & West

Cause of death: disease
Disease causes: unknown
quackery
childbed fever "doctor's plague"

Seventeenth Century
Sixteenth Century
Leeuwenhoek

discovers
bacteria
Wren does blood
transfusions
(dogs)
Harvey

discovers
circulation
Dark Ages & Middle Ages 400-1300 AD
Surgical & medical
knowledge LOST
Medical care
prayer, relics, amulets, exorcisms
Epidemics
plagues, smallpox

Medicine in Ancient Times
GREEKS ~400 BC
cause of disease
natural causes
medical care
herbs, massage


Hippocratic Oath


do NO harm


Early Beginnings




Focus

self preservation
Cause of illness

evil spirits
Medicine

herbs and plants

Foxglove plant (digitalis)

Cinchona tree (quinine)


List
5 medical advances
of the
20th century

Describe
future
medical advancements

List 2
ethical issues
arising from advancements
Objectives

Define the key terms.
Identify
3 scientists
& their
contributions
List
3 health care advancements
from before 1900.
Future of health care
holds yet more promise
ethical issues arise

Key Points

Key Points

Eighteenth century
First
vaccinations

Study of
physiology

Nineteenth Century
Discovery of
bacteria
,
X-rays
, pasteurization
Hand washing
to prevent disease
Antiseptics
,
anesthetics
New
vaccinations
Advances in nursing care
Discovery of
viruses




Key Points

Ancient Peoples:

Egyptians
:
herbs
, leeches, & temple priests to heal them
Chinese
:
acupuncture
& stone tools to treat illness

Greeks
: studied the
causes
of disease
Hippocrates:
noted
signs & symptoms
of disease
Advancements raise ethical questions

organ transplants
genetic testing, stem cell research
stem cell research
abortion
cloning
medical marijuana
euthanasia
quarantines

TODAY

Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses
Nurse Practitioners, Clinical Specialists





The Advancement of Nursing

Twenty-First Century

Emphasis on

prevention

and wellness
Shorter hospital stays, more home care
Telemedicine
Computerized technology

20th Century
1950's:
Polio
vaccine
,
cardiac
pacemaker
kidney
transplant

1960's:

Vaccine
: measles & mumps
heart
transplant

1970's:

Vaccines
: rubella, chicken pox,
pneumonia, meningitis

CT scans

"test tube" baby

Cyclosporin

(organ transplants)




19th Century
Jenner
:
small pox
vaccination
Roentgen
:
X-rays
Elizabeth Blackwell
: 1st female physician
in U.S.

Contact lenses

Human blood transfusion
Aspirin
Vaccines
:
Bubonic plague, typhoid fever
Blood typing
:
A, B, AB, O

19th Century
Semmelweis
handwashing
Lister
antiseptics
for surgery
von Bergmann
heat sterilization


Laennec
stethoscope
Pasteur
discovers bacteria ->
pasteurization

Koch
identifies specific disease causing bacteria


Anesthesia

nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform
Vaccinations

whooping cough, diphtheria,
measles, tetanus, smallpox

18th Century
Laënnec
stethoscope
Priestley
oxygen
Ben Franklin
human contact
spreads colds
bifocals
Jenner
smallpox vaccine
Lind
cure for Scurvy

Leonardo da Vinci

Study of
Anatomy
Jannsen invents the
Microscope


FIGURE 4.1 Leonardo da Vinci’s anatomy of the hand
Source: lolloj/Shutterstock

Medicine in Ancient Times 3000 BC - 500 BC

“The joy of discovery is certainly the liveliest that the mind of man
can ever feel.” Claude Bernard, French Physiologist , 1813–1878

Section 4.1:
The History of Health Care

Primitive humans
Egyptians
Healthcare
records
Developed
medicines
Splinted fractures

Leeches
(
bloodletting
)

Chinese

Herbal
remedies
Acupuncture
(
stone tools
)

Medicine in Ancient Times
ROMANS ~200 AD
sanitation
system
organized medical care
started
hospitals

Renaissance 1300-1600's
Rebirth of

science
Medical

schools
Body dissection

for study
Eye

glasses

Printing press

Black plague
Religious wars

Ancient Health Care
Renaissance
16th & 17th Centuries
18th Century
19th Century
20th & 21st Centruy
Advancement of Nursing
Evolution of Allied Health Professionals
The Past and the Future
Wrap Up
http://gelookahead.economist.com/video/video-the-future-of-health-care/
Full transcript