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Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
Transcript of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
The oil tanker
struck a reef;
the hull was
11 million gallons of crude oil
spilled into Prince William Sound
Joseph J. Hazelwood, the captain, had been drinking alcoholic beverages that day (claim).
Third mate on duty had not been given the mandatory 6 hours of rest and failed to properly maneuver the vessel
Valdez was traveling outside normal traffic lanes due to icebergs.
ExxonMobil was found
Oil drifted to 30,000 km squared of coastal and offshore waters in Alaska
Thousands of seabirds and otters, hundreds of harbor seals and about 30 whales died.
Billions of salmon and herring eggs, as well as algae and invertebrate populations were destroyed
Fisheries for local seafood remained closed for years.
Killer Whales and schools of herring have
1990 Congress passed Oil Pollution Act.
specifies for double-hulled tankers by 2015
Companies must have a plan:
prevent oil spills
clean up plan
There is still cleaning to be done.
Affecting fishing and tourism
Native Americans and permit holders lost
Tourism immediately lost over 26,000 jobs and more than $2.4 billion in sales.
Sea otters are an unlikely Keystone specie.
Consume sea urchins that eat kelp in coastal waters of the pacific.
Without them, habitat and bidiversity are affected.
By Regina, Conor and Michael
What can we do?
Use your voice politically
ask to decrease dependance on oil
Sierra Club, 350.org
exports of Canadian tar sands oil and its refined products to non-U.S. markets
Reduce fossil fuel usage
install or buysolar, wind, or geothermal for green energy
What can you do to decrease fossil fuel consumption at Elon and back home?
How did Exxon impact similar disasters, such as the BP oil spill? What else can be done to prevent future oil spills?
Who is at fault? Is ExxonMobil or are we? Why? What should change?
Considering the enironmental risks, is offshore drilling worth it?
Holleman, Marybeth. "After 25 years, Exxon Valdez oil spill hasn't ended." CNN. Last modified March 25, 2014.
“The Legacy of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.” NOAA. Last Modified Oct. 07, 2015
Gaps, John. “Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989).” New York Times Company. Last modified August 3, 2010
Mulkern, Anne. “BP's PR Blunders Mirror Exxon's, Appear Destined for Record Book.” New York Times Company. Last modified June 10, 2010
Graham, Sarah. “Environmental Effects of Exxon Valdez Spill Still Being Felt.” Scientific American. Last modified Dec. 19, 2013
“How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments.” NOAA. Last Modified Oct. 7, 2015
Biello, David. “Slick Solution: How Microbes Will Clean Up the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.” Scientific American. Last Modified May 10, 2010
Hodgson, Bryan. “Can the Wilderness Heal?” National Geographic Society. Last Modified January 1990.
“Questions and Answers about the Spill.” Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council.
The BP Oil Spill
Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in Gulf of Mexico
Estimated 205.8 million gallons of oil spilled into Gulf
11 people went missing during explosion and were never found
Reports indicate spill was caused by defective cement on the well of the rig.
Well was sealed September 19th, 2010
Corexit, was sprayed in vast amounts underwater as opposed to ontop
Oil eating microbes employed
Mutations caused in tuna and other fish impacting heart rate
Oil was 40% methane by weight, causing mass dead zones
Controlled burning of the oil on surface
Oil and dispersant mixed, trapping droplets on floor
Comparison Between Exxon and BP
Still not entirely clean
Caused chronic illneses among worker crews
Impacted smaller area
Claimed to be "substantially cleaned" in April 2014
Spill impacted zone the size of Oklahoma
Killed 11 workers
-The cleanup effort cost about $2.1 billion
-Hot water was being used, but they found that it could be cooking small organisms instead of helping them
- They switched to high pressure cold water to clean up the oil
Clean up effot
- It took four summers until the clean up effort was called off
-It took 10,000 workers, 1,000 boats, and about 100 airplane and helicopters
- This force was known as Exxon's Army, Navy, and Air Force
Animal Clean Up
-It is estimated that at least 25,000 animals died as a result of the spill.
- Volunteers set up a station at the spill and Dawn dishwashing detergent was used to clean up any animals that were harmed by the spill
- Most of the animals that survived the spill are fully rcovered today, but there are still animals that are still injured or are still recovering