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The world of translation

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Viena Rodríguez Sabaté

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of The world of translation

INTRODUCTION
The World of Translation
Viena Rodríguez
Mercè Viola
February 2014

INDEX
Introduction

Theoretic part
1. What is translation? What is it used for?
1.1 Definition

2. Origins and different approaches of translation
2.1 Some myths of the foundation of translation
2.1.1 The Tower of Babel
2.1.2 The Jewish scriptures, the Septuagint
2.1.3 The Septuagint versions
2.2 The history of Translation
3. Different types of translation
3.1 Written translation
3.1.1 Literary and non-literary translation
3.1.2 Informative translation
3.1.3 Specialized translation
3.1.4 Literal and free translation
3.1.5 Human, computer-aided and machine translation
3.2 Oral translation
3.2.1 A brief history of interpretation
3.2.2 Interpretation modalities
3.2.2.1 Simultaneous interpretation
3.2.2.2 Consecutive interpretation
3.2.23 Sight interpretation
3.2.2.4 Link interpretation
3.3 Audiovisual translation
3.3.1 Dubbing
3.3.2 Subtitling
3.3.3 Voice-over
3.3.4 Half-dubbing


5. Problems in translation
5.1 Problems
5.1.1 Text specific problems
5.1.2 Pragmatic problems
5.1.3 Linguistic problems
5.1.4 Cultural problems

6. Differences between a translator and an interpreter
6.1 Main differences
6.2 Work
6.3 Types
6.4 Problems


Practical part
1. Short film about translators' lives
ENGLISH
FUTURE STUDIES
1. WHAT IS TRANSLATION?
WHAT IS IT USED FOR?
1.1 Definition
PRODUCT = TRANSLATED TEXT
PROCESS = ACT OF TRANSLATING

TRANSLATE THE ST TO THE TT
2. ORIGINS AND DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF TRANSLATION
2.1 SOME MYTHS
2.1.1 THE TOWER OF BABEL
2.1.2 THE JEWISH SCRIPTURES, THE SEPTUAGINT
2.1.3 THE SEPTUAGINT VERSIONS
FIRST PERIOD
46 BC
NO VERBUM PRO VERBO (WORD-FOR-WORD TRANSLATION)
EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO TRANSLATION
INSTANCE ON THE ROLE OF TRANSLATION
SECOND PERIOD
Hermeneutical theory of translation
Dominant philosophical approach
THIRD PERIOD
Late 1940s
Formalistic approach
Structural linguistics and information theories
Disappointing results = Lack of translation theory
FOURTH PERIOD
Late 1960s
New hermeneutic questions about translation and interpretation
Clarify the act of translation and mechanisms of life between languages
2.2 THE STORY OF TRANSLATION
ORAL
TRANSLATION
AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION
3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSLATION
3.1.1 Literary and non-literary translation
3.1.2 Informative
translation
Journalistic texts
Non-literary texts
Convey a certain amount of ideas to inform the reader
3.1.3 Specialized translation
3.1.4 Literal and free translation
3.1.5 Human, computer-aided and machine translation
LITERARY TRANSLATION
NON-LITERARY
TRANSLATION
World of reality, facts and events
Encyclopaedias, encyclopaedic dictionaries, names, titles
Literature
Poetry, drama, essay, novel
World of the mind and imagination
Emotional impression upon the reader
WRITTEN TRANSLATION
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL TRANSLATION
JUDICIAL TRANSLATION
LEGAL AND ECONOMIC TRANSLATION
SWORN TRANSLATION
LITERAL TRANSLATION
Word-for-word translation
Preserve the original meaning
FREE TRANSLATION
Thought-for-thought translation
Meaning expressed in equivalent thoughts
HUMAN TRANSLATION
COMPUTER-AIDED TRANSLATION (CAT)
MACHINE TRANSLATION (MT)
Very common
Interest in translation
Teaching
Written and orally
Computer-assisted translation
A translator with the help of some software tools
Mechanical translation
Text translated only by a software tool
Limited ranges of vocabulary = good translation
Should be edited by a human
Written and non-literary
3.2.1 A brief history of interpretation
Most ancient jobs - not recognized after the First World War
Little presence in universities until recently
Appeared when writing did
Increase in international relations and a deep evolution in behaviour of people
Simultaneous interpretation
Consecutive interpretation
Locator talking - Interpreter taking notes
Sight
translation
Simultaneous interpretation of a written text
Conference interpretation modality
Keep the translator away from difficulties
In courtrooms, enterprises...

Link
interpretation
The interpreter acts like a link between two people
Short interventions
Commercial exchanges, private business conversations
3.2.2 INTERPRETATION MODALITIES
Oral translation
Specific equipment
Intensive process
Team work
Working languages
3 MAIN PHASES:
Listening and comprehension
Memorization and fixation
Re-expression
- Political talks
- Press conferences
- Business conversations
DUBBING
SUBTITLING
VOICE-OVER
HALF-DUBBING
4. METHODS, STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES OF TRANSLATION
Translators and interpreters use different ways to turn the source text (ST) into the target text (TT), and it is necessary to distinguish between methods, strategies and techniques.
TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
Analyse and classify how translation equivalence works
Affect the result
TRANSLATION STRATEGIES
TRANSLATION METHODS
Translation process
Affect the whole text
SEVERAL METHODS:
1. Interpretative-communicative
- The translation of the sense
2. Literal
- The linguistic transcodification
3. Free
- the codification of communicative categories
4. Philological
- The academic or critic translation
SL EMPHASISES ON
TL EMPHASISES ON
V DIAGRAM BY PETER NEWMARK:
SL EMPHASISES ON
TL EMPHASISES ON
Word-for-word translation
Literal translation
Faithful translation
Semantic translation
Adaptation
Free translation
Idiomatic translation
Communicative translation
Word-for-word translation
I LIKE DANCING

J'AIME

DANSANT

-

J'AIME DANCER
Literal translation
WHAT TIME IS IT?

QUEL TEMPS

EST-IL?

-

QUELLE HEURE EST-IL?
Faithful translation
Semantic translation
A nun ironing a corporal cloth

Une none repassant un corporal
Russian language doesn’t have auxiliary verbs like “seem” or “would”.

Seemingly, he is unhappy
is a neutral sentence in Russian but the good English translation is
He seems unhappy
.
Adaptation
THE SOUND OF MUSIC
=
LA MÉLODIE DU BONHEUR
Free translation
It produces the TL text without the style, form or content of the original.
Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original.

Idiomatic translation
Between a rock and a hard place

Entre le marteau et l’enclume
Communicative translation
It attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are really acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.
To solve problems
Part of the process
TRANSLATION BY A MORE GENERAL WORD
TRANSLATION BY A MORE NEUTRAL WORD/LESS EXPRESSIVE WORD
TRANSLATION BY CULTURAL SUBSTITION
TRANSLATION USING A LOAN WORD OR A LOAN WORD PLUS EXPLANATION
TRANSLATION BY PARAPHRASE USING AN UNRELATED WORD
EIGHT TRANSLATION STRATEGIES
TRANSLATION BY PARAPHRASE USING A RELATED WORD
TRANSLATION
BY OMISSION
TRANSLATION BY
ILLUSTRATION
5 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Affect the result
2. Classified by comparison with the original
3. Affect micro-units of text
4. Discursive and contextual
5. Functional
Peter Newmark
DIFFERENT TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
Michael Schreiber
THREE WAYS TO CLASSIFY TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
Jean-Paul Vinay & Jean Darbelnet
DIRECT TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
OBLIQUE TRANSLATION PROCEDURES
BORROWING
BULLDOZER
=
BULLDOZER
CALQUE
WEEKEND
=
FIN DE SEMAINE
LITERAL TRANSLATION
THE INK IS ON THE TABLE
=
L'ENCRE EST SUR LA TABLE
TRANSPOSITION
NO SMOKING
=
DÉFENSE DE FUMER
MODULATION
INDIAN INK
=
ENCRE DE CHIEN
EQUIVALENCE
ADAPTATION
SHE IS INNOCENT AS AN EGG
=
ELLE EST INNOCENTE COMME UN AGNEAU
LIKE A BULL IN A CHINA SHOP
=
COMME UN CHIEN DANS UN JEU DE QUILLES
LEXICAL SYNONYMY
COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS
COMPENSATION
YOU
=
TU/VOUS
TRANSLATION LABEL
SOCIAL ADVANCEMENT
=
PROMOTION SOCIALE
DEFINITION
PARAPHRASE
EXPANSION
LIFE GIVING
=
DONNER LA VIE
CONTRACTION
ANATOMY
=
SCIENCE ANATOMIQUE
RECASTING SENTENCES
REARRANGEMENT/IMPROVEMENT
TRANSLATION COUPLET
NOTES
A VERY AGED MAN
=
UN HOMME TRÈS ÂGÉ
LEXICAL
1. LEXICAL BORROWING :
MAILER = TO MAIL

2. LEXICAL SUBSTITUTION

3. CHANGE OF A LEXICAL UNIT STRUCTURE
GRAMMATICAL
1. WORD-FOR-WORD TRANSLATION

2. PERMUTATION

3. EXPANSION
HOMME NOIR = DARK SKINNED MAN

4. REDUCTION
SCIENCE POLITIQUE =POLITICS

5. INTRACATEGORIAL CHANGE

6. TRANSPOSITION
D'UNE FAÇON CRUELLE = CRUELLY

7. TRANSFORMATION
SEMANTIC
1. Semantic borrowing

2. Modulation
On dit qu'il est sérieux
=
He is said to be serious

3. Explication
4. Implication
5. Mutation
Full transcript