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Transcript of Ancient Greece
many islands B. Settlements few flat areas for farmland
lived along coast and river valleys
villages separated by mountains and seas communities were isolated travel was difficult
Greek communities were viewed themselves as separate counties
People created own government and ways of life Mediterranean Sea
South Ionian Sea
West Aegean Sea
East C. Seas and Ships C. Seas and Ships Sea used for food and travel
Greeks were skilled shipbuilders and sailors
Sailed to Asia Minor, Egypt, and small islands Found food and trade and ideas from other cultures PREP QUESTIONS What geographic feature is Greece located? A Peninsula What 3 bodies of water surround Greece? Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea Why was travel difficult in Greece? Mountain and Seas were difficult to cross TRADE! IF the Greeks were sailing to other places what aspect of their culture improved? 9-1 2. Trading Cultures Develop A. The Minoans lived on the island of Crete.
Traded pottery, wood, and olive oil for copper, gold, silver and jewels A. The Minoans Geography was dangerous
Volcanic eruption in 1600 BC caused a huge wave which flooded much of Crete
Ash from volcano ruined crops and buried cities.
May have led to the end of the civilization B. The Mycenaeans first group to be considered Greek
built fortresses all over Greece HISTORIANS DON'T CONSIDER MINOANS GREEK They didn't speak the Greek language Mycenae was the largest and most powerful fortress B. The Mycenaeans set up colonies in northern Greece and Italy to ship goods to Mediterranean and Black Sea.
took over Crete and became the major traders
attacked other kingdoms due to thought that trading didn't have to be peaceful. B. The Mycenaeans began to fall in 1200 BC.
Earthquakes destroyed many cities.
Dark Ages: a period of warfare and disorder Historians believe they attacked Troy to possibly start the Trojan War Prep Questions What direction would the Mycenaeans have to travel to reach the Minoan Civilization? SOUTHEAST How was the decline of the Minoans and Mycenaeans similar? NATURAL DISASTERS Where was the Minoan civilization located? THE ISLAND OF CRETE Why was it important for the Mycenaeans to build powerful fortresses? PROTECTION 3. Create City States A. Life in City States B. City States and Colonization C. Patterns of Trade VOCAB:
city-state=Greeks joined together in small groups for protection and stability
polis= Greek word for city-state
Classical Age = a time marked by great achievements
acropolis= the high hill a fortress stood on
agora = market place A. Life in City States cities were usually built around a strong fortress
walls added protection
Not everyone lived inside the walls for example farmers
In times of war - men would fight outside, keeping women and children safe inside A. Life in City States Life focused around the marketplace
Also served as a meeting place City-state became a foundation of Greek Civilization providing protection, security, and an identity People thought of themselves as a city resident not as Greeks. people were expected to participate in economy and government B. City States and Colonization Life became settled
Less fear of raiders
People began to think of other things rich though trade neighboring lands population issues B. City States and Colonization Colonies:a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation. People eventually reached the decision: Greeks should establish colonies
Eventually colonies became independent
Colonies spread all around the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Istanbul in Turkey
Marseille in France
Naples in Italy C. Patterns of Trade Colonies often traded with city-states
Colonies sent metals, iron and copper
City states sent wine, olive oil and other products C. Patterns of Trade Trade made city- states richer because of location By 550 BC the Greeks were the greatest traders in the Aegean region. Prep Questions What is the Classical Age? a time marked by great achievements 1. Aristocrats and Tyrants Rule Greece was the birthplace of democracy Why did Greeks decided to establish colonies? trade, learn about neighbors, deal with population problems Why did the Greeks develop city states? To band together for protection and stability 9-2 2. Athens Creates Democracy 3. Ancient Democracy Differs from Modern Democracy Democracy: a type of government in which the people rule
Aristocrats dominated Athenian society
600 BC a group tried to overthrow the Aristocrats- it failed Solon
a man who created less harsh laws and gave rights to non- aristocrats
All free men living in Athens became citizens Draco
a man who created a new set of laws with very harsh punishments
People believed they were too strict Citizen: people who had the right to participate in government. B. The Rise of the Tyrants Athenians wanted a new goverment= NO MORE ARISTOCRATS RULE!
Peisistratus- overthrew the oligarchy and began to rule; became a tyrant.
Good leader with strong armies Tyrant: a leader who held power through the use of force Brought PEACE and PROSPERITY to the city.
began NEW POLICIES meant to UNIFY THE CITY
created new festivals and built temples and monuments
Many improvements were made After his death, his son took over at tyrant
HOW DID THE ARISTOCRATS FEEL?
Aristocrats were unhappy because their power was gone.
Convinced a rival city-state to attack Athens 1. Aristocrats and Tyrant Rule Oligarchy Tyranny Eventually tyrants lost power and Aristocrats returned to power for a short time. Oligarchy: a government where only a few people have the power
Aristocrats: rich land owners A. Democracy under Cleistenes Every citizen had the right to speak their opinion B. Changes in Democracy Citizens gained more power.
Able to serve on juries
Pericles: elected leader who:
1. encouraged the Athenians to take pride in their city.
2. Believed participation was just as important as defending in war
3. Paid public offices and juries as encouragement
4. Encouraged the spread of democracy C. End of Democracy In 330s BC Athens was conquered by the Macedonians and fell under their influence
democracy was in place but with very little power Democracy lasted 170 years C. End of Democracy Macedonian king ruled like a dictator
Assembly would still meet but not make big changes
Athenians feared the king and his army
Eventually Athenians lost even this limited democracy. Dictator: a ruler who held ALL the power A. Direct Democracy All citizens could participate
each person's decision directly affects the outcome vote
MAJORITY RULED 3. Ancient Vs Modern B. Representative Democracy Republic
Citizens elect officials to represent them in government
Officials meet to make and enforce laws
Americans don't vote on EVERY law that gets passed TEST PREP Who started the democracy in Athens? CLEISTENES Why were slaves sent to round up citizens? more citizens were needed to vote on a law Why was a smaller council of officials necessary? To determine which laws the assembly should vote on A. Democracy under Cleistenes Athenians LOVED TO HEAR SPEECHES and encouraged people to talk
Voting was done by a show of hands or secret ballots City officials selected to serve on smaller councils and decided which laws should be discussed. Cleisthenes- gained power but did not want Aristocrats to rule.
All citizens had the right to participate in creating the city's laws Slaves were sent into town to gather citizens to vote
One time they used a red rope and if you're clothes were marked and they didn't show up they would be fined 9-3 2. Literature A.Gods B. Gods and Mythology C.Heroes and Mythology 1. Gods Ancient Greeks believed their gods caused events to happen.
They created myths to explain their gods' actions Mythology: a body of stores about gods and heroes that try to explain how the world works Greeks saw the work of the gods all around them
Ex: Hephaestus caused volcanoes to heat the forge
Ex: Demeter created seasons when daughter was kidnapped
missed daughter = nothing grows = winter
daughter home = happy goddess = summer 2. Gods and Mythology Greeks built temples to keep gods happy
In return they expected help from gods when needed Greek would travel to Delphi when they needed advice
Delphi = a city in central Greece
They would speak to the oracle
Oracle = a female priest of Apollo whom they thought the gods gave answers
Oracle was VERY RESPECTED! Many myths told adventures of great heroes
Some were real people
Heroes usually had special abilities and faced monsters 3. Heroes and Mythology Theseus told by the people of Athens
traveled to Crete and killed the Minotaur (half human/ half bull) Jason Northern Greece
sailed across seas looking for treasure Hercules all over Greece
fought hydra (snake with 9 heads)
performed impossible tasks A. Homer and Epic Poetry A. Homer and Epic Poetry B. Lyric Poetry C. Fables D. Language E. Lit and Art Homer wrote 2 great epics: the Iliad and the Odyssey
Both poems describe deeds of great heroes
central of education
Greeks admired Homer and heroes
influenced later writings TEST PREP What is the purpose of telling myths? To explain how the world works What was often the explanation for natural events? THE GODS What are some events that the Greeks believed their gods were responsible for? Volcanic eruptions and the seasons What role did heroes play in Greek myths? Adventure stories where they had special abilities and faced monsters Who are some greek heroes? Theseus
story of the last year's of the Trojan War
focuses on the deeds of the Greeks
Achilles - greatest greek warrior Odyssey
describes the challenges the Greek hero Odysseus faced on the way home from war
Many obstacles poems set to music
lyre played during performance
most poets were men
Sappho - most famous poet known for her beautiful and emotional poems B. Lyric Poetry Fables- Short stories that teach the reader a lesson about life or give advice on how to live C. Fables Aesop - most famous for fables
Some may have animals that talk and act like humans
Ex: People should work instead of waste time
Ex: Slow and steady wins the race Greeks influences our language
Ex: long journey = odyssey
Ex: large and powerful = titanic D. Language Athens from Athena
Atlas Mts from giant who held up the sky
Aegean Sea from Aegeus a Greek king myths inspired artists
painters and sculptors used gods and heroes in the work
writer retold ancient stories in modern times
movie makers borrow stories from myths
Sports teams adopt names of powerful figures from myths E. Lit and Art Test Prep What purposes did the Iliad and Odyssey serve for the Greeks? entertainment and lessons How have recent writers been influenced by the poems? copied writing styles and borrowed stories from poems What types of stories did Aesop write? Fables What are some modern references to Greek mythology? movies, books, stories, sports teams