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Development of Age 8 ~ 9

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Aisha Chung

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of Development of Age 8 ~ 9

What is cognitive development?
Children at this age
become much more responsible.
They are like a “little adult”.
According to
the Giant-Gesell's theory, children's physical maturation follows reasonable predictable patterns. Both nature and nurture are very important for children's physical growth.

Children at ages 8 to 9 begin to get a sense of their own physical ability. As their coordination improves, their fine motor skills are sharpened. Children are developing confidence in their gross and fine motor skills, and that confidence improves their learning, thinking, social skills, and regulation of their behavior.
Gross motor skills
Fine motor skills
What should we do
for 8-9 years old children
8 years Old
9 years old
8 years old
9 years old
What is
Social-emotional involves learning to interact with other people, and to understand and control your own emotions.

Babies start to develop relationships with the people around them right from birth; however, the process of learning to communicate, share, and interact with others takes many years to develop.

Developing the ability to control your emotions and behavior is also a long process.
What to Expect:
Grammar knowledge is complete and children are also better at thinking about language and how it is organized and related to it self.

Synonyms, categorization and figurative language are among their newest language skills.

By 3rd grade children’s academic, phonological and language skills should be good enough to allow them to read and write to learn new information.
Summarizes a story accurately

Asks and answers questions about the reading material

Uses clues from language content and structure
Plans to organize, revise and edit.

Includes details in writing.

Spells simple words correctly, corrects must spell indirectly or with a dictionary for help.
Opens and closes conversations appropriately

Stays on topics, takes turns and uses eye contact during conversations

Uses language to establish and maintain social status.
What child says:
Uses most parts of speech, all grammar is acquired

Uses subject related vocabulary

Explains what has been learned

Productions of figurative language increases
--- “You're pulling my leg!” --- Beginning to understand jokes and riddles based on sound similarities.

( After this part a like to have the example of tongue twisters. )
what the Child Understand:
Listen attentively in groups situations

Understand directions words
By age eight,
children are developing stronger interests
and opinions of their own.

• They are full of energy; and do things in a hurry. They love group games.

• They play hard and tire quickly. They have many emotions; they need to release their energy through play.

• Children are somewhat awkward.

Their gross motor skills
like throwing, catching, kicking, balancing, and batting approach the mature stage.
Nine-year-old children are on the brink of adolescence.

• They like to push their physical limits, whether challenging themselves, or just for fun. They show increased awareness of their own physical motor skills and how they appear to others.

• They are still learning physical control; they have trouble staying within boundaries.

• They participate with confidence in movement activities in the classroom and the playground. They love team sports such as soccer, football, cricket, tennis and other physical activities such as dance.They use their arms, legs, hands and feet with ease and improved precision.
Children by age eight, can control their eyes and hands to write many words, write cursive and draw detailed pictures. They love to practice writing but often make sloppy work.

Most of them can dress and do their hair without help, use many kitchen implements and basic tools such as a hammer or screwdriver and hold a pencil the same as adults.
Fine motor skill's development in nine-year-old children is critical for their ability to perform everyday tasks. Struggling with fine motor skills can impact the children academics, ability to play a musical instrument, sports, and tool usage. In the early adolescent years, lacking fine motor skills could impact the young teen's self esteem, grades, behavior, and ability to form friendships.

• They have better coordination and control abilities; and they show more interest in details.

• They can fully master cursive handwriting, although they may need help relaxing their overly tight pencil grasp.

• They obtain benefit from practice with a variety of fine motor tools and tasks (weaving, knitting, carving, drawing,etc.)
From age nine,
physical growth may start to diverge between boys and girls as puberty begins. Although both sexes continue to increase steadily in height and weight, and to gain coordination and strength, girls experience an earlier spurt in height and may now be taller and heavier than boys of the same age. This is a time when children may be vulnerable to body image problems and are sensitive to know how their peers perceive them. They may start having eating disorders.
It's particularly important for
teachers to educate the children for a balanced diet with a minimum of 'junk' food.
During eight -nine years old,
children need to develop a sense of accomplishment, which centers on their ability to deal with peers, competition, self-control, and greater physical strength.
As teachers, we can:
• Support the development of fine and gross motor skills by using age appropriate activities, encourage children to adapt or invent their own games with teachers' supervision.
• Manage enough time and free space for the children to practice their fine and gross motor skills.
• Urge both genders to participate in all activities, encourage them to learn from others and each their skills to others.
Social-emotional Development characteristics:
• Enjoys socializing and sharing humor
• Loves group activities; but preferably with peers of the same gender
• Adjust well to change
• Form larger friendship groups
Social-Emotional Development
In yardsticks, Chip Wood states
that Eight year old in the classroom:

• “Work best in groups at tables”
• “Prefer working and playing with peers of the same gender”
• “Enjoy studying other cultures”
• “As they develop a growing sense of moral responsibility beyond themselves, they become more interested in fairness issues and may argue about them”
• “Like stories that concern fairness and justice”

Social-emotional Development Characteristics:
• Highly motivated
• Impatient
• Critical of self and others
• Can be sullen and moody
• Complains about fairness issues
• May often feel worried or anxious
Social-Emotional Development
In yardsticks, Chip Wood states
that Nine year old in the classroom are:

• “Like to work with a partner of their choice-usually of the same gender; may begin to form cliques”
• “Can work in groups but may spend more time argued about facts, rules, and directions than doing the actual activity”
• “Very competitive”
• “Like to negotiate”
• “Generally worried and anxious”
• “Very critical; sarcastic humor from adults can very hurtful”
• “Tend to give up on tasks”

Cognitive development refers to
how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world.

Among the areas of
cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory.

Cognitive development
is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making from childhood through
adolescence to adulthood.
Stage II:
Concrete Operation
The nature and development of human intelligence
Know that objects have uses and can be classified into different categories. For example, they recognize that a carrot is something to eat and is a type of vegetable.
Can read and understand longer sentences up to 12 words.
Can add and subtract 2-digit numbers, understand fractions, and are learning how to borrow and carry values.
Like organization and planning, such as making plans ahead of time with friends.
Think independently. Most children are improving their decision-making skills.
Can accomplish increasingly more complex tasks and projects in school, such as book reports.
Most children by age 9
in cognitive development:
Most children by age 9
in Language development:
Children at this age are applying what they learn in school to other aspects of their lives as well as other school subjects.
Their language skills are becoming more abstract and complex.
Children are also beginning to read and write more difficult sentences than they typically use in their conversations.
Analytical skills and other complex organization skills are acquired and children use speech and language for many social purposes.
Most children by age 9 in
social-Emotional development:
Recognize basic social norms and appropriate behavior.
Can control their anger most of the time.
Have caring, solid friendships.
Have gained a strong sense of empathy, which is understanding and being sensitive to the feelings of others.
Have more stable emotions than in the previous year. Mood swings may still occur, but not as frequently as before.
Have overcome most fears that were common in earlier childhood. But they often start having more anxiety from common stressful situations, such as school performance.
Are curious about relationships between boys and girls. Few will admit to this interest—most will insist that they are horrified by the opposite sex.
Most children by age 9 in
Physical growth & development:
Grow about 2.5 in. (6 cm) and gain about 7 lb (3 kg) in a year.
Start to show a growth pattern related to gender: girls are starting to get taller and weigh more than boys.
Lose about four baby teeth each year. These are replaced with permanent teeth.
Be overly concerned about conforming to peer-imposed rules
Be competitive
Become antagonistic toward the opposite gender, leading to quarrels or teasing
Develop interests specific to their gender
Form same-gender cliques
Spend a lot of energy in physical game playing
Be more competitive in school activities
Still need teacher approval and attention
Believe academic achievement is important
family relationships
Need parental guidance and support for school achievements
Rely on parents for help in assuming personal and social responsibilities
The ability
to think symbolically
and to reverse processes
when information is presented concretely.
Ability to distinguish between their own thoughts and the thoughts of others: children recognize that their thoughts and perceptions may be different from those around them.
Increased classification skills: children are able to classify objects by their number, mass, and weight.
Ability to think logically about objects and events.
Ability to fluently perform mathematical problems in both addition and subtraction.
The primary milestones
of a child's concrete operational stage are:
Reversibility Experiment:
Reductive Reasoning Experiment:
Lev Vygotsky had another view on cognitive development. He believed that learning was passed down from generation to generation; that it was a result of guided social interactions in which children worked with their peers and a mentor to solve problems and that cognitive development could only be understood if you took cultural and social context into account. He believed that you were unable to think until you knew and understood a language. Vygotsky came up with the Zone of Proximal Development, which he defined as the difference between the developmental level of a child and the developmental level a child could reach with the right amount of guidance. He called this guidance scaffolding and believed that teachers should foster learning, independence, and growth among students.
Lev Vygotsky
Start realizing the value of money, and some may even become obsessed with making money and saving.
Math will get more complicated for 8-year-old students, who will begin to tackle multiplication and division.
By the end of third grade, 8-year-old will begin working with fractions, know how to use graphs, and work with probability and estimates.
Math will become much more complicated in fourth grade. Nine-year-old children will tackle multiplication and division of multiple digits, learn fractions and geometry, and may begin algebra.
They will learn how to make graphs and charts using data, and will work on word problems that require analytical and logical thinking.
By the end of fourth grade, nine-year-old children will know how to add and subtract fractions, know about different angles and how to measure them, and be able to collect, organize and share data in reports and presentations.
8 Years Old
9 Years Old
Nine-year-old children are able to write and read skillfully, and will be able to express themselves using complex and sophisticated vocabulary and ideas.
You can expect a 9-year-old child to be able to read different types of fictional and non-fictional works, including biographies, poems, historical fiction, suspenseful series, and more.
In fourth grade, your child may also be expected to produce various types of writing including book reports, essays, fiction, and historical fiction.
Nine-year-old will be able to use research material from the library and the internet to gather information for reports on various subjects including historical events and figures.
Children switching from learning to read to reading to learn.
8-year-old may become obsessed with a particular series such as the Diary of a Wimpy Kid or Harry Potter.
8-year-old child will also be able to write in different genres such as fictional stories and essays.
An 8-year-old will be able to produce writing that has logical beginnings, endings, plot points, and sophisticated vocabulary.
You may find an 8-year-old child’s writing engaging, informative, and even entertaining!
Eight-year-old children will also be expected to learn and practice cursive writing.
8 Years Old
9 Years Old

“Caring for School-Age Children”
8 Years Old
Like to talk, explain ideas use rapidly expanding vocabularies
Little sense of their own limits
Patience is not common in 8 years old
Need to be short and to the point
This is too hard
"I'm bored!" is a common complaint
9 Years Old
Nine tend to learn better on their own as they gain mastery of basic skills
Nothing is fair to the nine years old
Enjoy exaggeration "dirty" jokes graffiti
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