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Management: Planning and Projects
Transcript of Management: Planning and Projects
How best to contribute, cope with unexpected Motivate
Knowing the wider picture helps commitment Use resources effectively
To reduce overlap,
co-ordinate required tasks To measure progress
Goals, targets, times enable monitoring As a ritual
Gives appearance of being rational Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure. Planning may create rigidity. Plans can’t be developed for a dynamic environment. Formal plans can’t replace intuition and creativity. Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition, not on tomorrow’s survival. Why not? Strategic Plans Are organization-wide, establish overall objectives, and position an organization in terms of its environment. Tactical Plans Specify the details of how an organization’s overall objectives are to be achieved. Short-term Plans Cover less than one year. Long-term Plans Extend beyond five years. Time & Focus Types of Planning Management by Objectives (MBO) specific performance objectives jointly determined by subordinates and their supervisors,
progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed,
rewards are allocated on the basis of that progress. Motivates rather than controls. Focuses operational efforts on organizationally important results. Strategic Planning Process Critical success factors analysis Forecasting Sensitivity analysis Scenario planning -What we must do well to satisfy customers Using past to predict future To test effects of change in a variable How alternative, plausible futures could affect business Tasks Organisational Identity Mission Statement Objectives Strategic Plan Criteria for assessing goals - SMART
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Rewarded, Timed
Ensuring goals are motivational
Locke and Latham (2002) – difficult, specific, participative, feedback defines an organization’s purpose and provides guidance to managers and employees Explains the business founders’ vision and describes the strategy and operations of that business. specific measures (milestones) for achievement, progress, and performance Analyze the Environment Environmental Scanning
Involves screening large amounts of information to detect emerging trends and create a set of scenarios Competitive Intelligence
Information about competitors that allows managers to anticipate competitors’ actions rather than merely react to them Gathering information Competitive and general environments
Organisational analysis Implementing plans and monitoring results tests the accuracy of the assumptions and methods Organisations slower to change than are plans to prepare Miller et al. (2004) – implementation depends on
managers’ experience of the issue
readiness of the organisation to change Porter's Five Forces VRIN PESTEL Projects Projects are unique, one-time operations designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives in a limited timeframe estimate;
monitoring and control;
documentation. Estimate effort time for average person to undertake task.
Estimate different work rates and availability of staff.
Allocate resources (staff) to task.
Calculate elapsed time on the basis of the number of staff, availability and work rate.
Schedule task in relation to other tasks. Estimation Scheduling: Scheduling involves determining when project activities should be executed.
The finished schedule is termed the project plan.
Resource allocation: This activity involves assigning a resource to each task. Scheduling Monitoring involves ensuring that the project is working to plan once it is started.
Control is taking corrective action if the project deviates from the plan. Monitoring and Control Project management is the way of managing change Understanding the needs of stakeholders.
Planning what needs to be done, when, by whom, and to what standards.
Building and motivating the team.
Coordinating the work of different people.
Monitoring work being done.
Managing any changes to the plan.
Delivering successful results. BOSCARDET structure for Terms of Reference headings/sections:
Timescales. Skills? Personal skills
Coping skills Projects rarely fail—but people do. Resources
People, equipment, material
Task durations, dependencies, critical path
Costs, contingencies, profit
Project size, goals, requirements Elements 1. Executive support
2. User involvement
3. Experienced project manager
4. Clear business objectives
5. Minimized scope
6. Standard software infrastructure Success factors Project managers must coordinate all of the other knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycle.
Many new project managers have trouble looking at the “big picture” and want to focus on too many details. Project managers may need to "break the rules" to meet project goals, and senior managers must support those actions. Project failure is primarily blamed on inadequate management of projects with the manager failing to:
Specify user requirements adequately;
Manage the number of requested changes;
Limit the scope of the changes;
Tackle in-house politics;
Negotiate changes to deadlines or number of features required. Project managers must lead by example to demonstrate the importance of creating and then following good project plans. Managing Projects Managing Stakeholders 1. Identifying: listing relevant groups, organizations, and people
2. Analyzing: understanding stakeholder perspectives and interests
3. Mapping: visualizing relationships to objectives and other stakeholders
4. Prioritizing: ranking stakeholder relevance and identifying issues
the ‘intermediaries’, that is, persons or organizations who are indirectly affected by an organization's actions. Primary stakeholders
those ultimately affected, either positively or negatively by an organization's actions. Key stakeholders
(who can also belong to the first two groups) have significant influence upon or importance within an organization.
Power (high, medium, low)
Support (positive, neutral, negative)
Influence (high or low)
Need (strong, medium, weak) “If you don’t have honesty and integrity, you won’t be able to develop effective relationships with any of your stakeholders.” Robert W. Lane, Chairman/CEO of Deere & Company, Customers, suppliers, employees, and shareholders are example of primary stakeholder groups. Secondary stakeholders include governments (especially through regulatory agencies), unions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), activities, political action groups, and the media. In pairs/small groups produce a simple project plan for making a cooked breakfast for 8 people Activity What issues do managers need to make plans for?
What types of plans do they make?
How do they develop the plan?