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Management & Leadership

Management & Leadership as per Harvard & IBM

Bassem Selim

on 22 August 2016

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Transcript of Management & Leadership


Management Styles
Organizational Climate

Management Activities
Team Formation
Management Styles
organizational climate
technology of management
it is impossible to organize until plans have been set
organize ... Resources; e.g. money, talent, technology, and tools
a never-ending story
drilling-down from strategic objectives and plans
times for long-term & times for short-term planning
assign work, grant authority
leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging
requires to coach, assist, and problem solve
monitor & evaluate results vs. goal achievement
take corrective actions
change of course when necessary
set standards to achieve goals
organizational climate
for long-term success, manager needs to emphasize Authoritative, Coaching, Democratic
who will do what and where
Individual Management Model (IMM)
build common understanding
build expectations, relate to goals
of task, objective, goals, role, priorities, climate
specially important for juniors
should be challenging and attainable
"performance measure" employee must meet to be appraised at particular levels of performance
employee feels he has authority
employee feels accountable
employee feels free to take independent decision
Team Commitment
workspace constraints
feel no unnecessary stuff (policy, etc..) interfere with task accomplishment
new ideas acceptance, creativity (-> ownership)
feel recognized for good work
direct & differential recognition level relation with performance
non-monetary rewards: movie tickets, certificates, thanks from the bosses, flexible schedules, a day off
proud to belong to team, company, etc... provides extra effort when required, cover peers
trust all work for a common objective
knows what he is responsible for & what is at stake, otherwise, he becomes a "bad apple"
goal: immediate compliance
right style @ right time
lots of directives, controls tightly
relies on negatives, corrective feedback
motivates by stating negative consequences
provides clear long-term vision & direction
is expert in his field of work
sells vision
set standards and monitors performance
balance +ve & -ve feedback to motivate
never says how
better to work with mature team rather than with juniors
create harmony,
more sensitive to the values of people
than reaching goals
avoids performance-related confrontations
rewards personal characteristics more than job performance
master at building relationships
building commitment
generating new ideas
invites employees to participate in decision development
rewards adequate performance
rarely gives negative feedback
holds many meetings, listens to concerns
consensus through collaboration
accomplishing tasks to
high standards of excellence
less delegation, poor performance sympathy
lead by example
when employee faces difficulties, provides detailed task instruction; when not, give little performance feedback
found in newly promoted
has high standards, expects others to know the rationale behind
long-term professional development of others
is a facilitator not an advisor
helping others to learn, rather than teaching them
helps employees identify their unique strengths and weaknesses
encourages employees to establish long-range development goals
Leading Change
Whole Brain Thinking
Tasks &
Forward looking
Risk taking
Have I seen all the hidden possibilities?
May overlook
Data Based
Do I have all the facts?
May overlook
Synergistic options
using all of the brain's 4 highly specialized functions and thought processes when talking a decision
Will I be in control?
May overlook
Alternative solutions
Novel ideas
Big picture
How will I affect others?
May overlook
Project Manager
Majority of men under stressed
Majority of women under stress
What If?
HBDI, MBTI, to measure, utilize, communicate, shift, train, develop
changes from time to time
What is Motivation?
Energize people to act.
With a sense of direction
And a degree of persistence
Establish Motivation
Allow the team members to make their own decisions
Encourage creativity on the job
Ensure the team members have the necessary resources
Clarifies to the team members how their work contributes to strategy
Keep the team members regularly well informed
Provide feedback to foster each team member development
Try to implement the team member’s good ideas quickly
Create an enjoyable work environment
Help the team members to gain new skills and experiences
Show appreciation for the outstanding contributions
No Limit
Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks
Provide wages sufficient to purchase life essentials

Provide safe working environment
Retirement benefits
Job security
Create sense of community via team-based projects and social events
Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued
Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position
Provide a challenge and opportunity to reach full career potential
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
more than one need may be operational at a given point of time
frustration- regression aspect: if fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued, desire for satisfying a lower-level need increases
"starving artist" explanation: an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied
Motivation factors. Those factors that are strong contributors to job satisfaction
Related to: the nature of the work itself and the way the employee performs it
Hygiene factors. Those factors that are not strong contributors to satisfaction but that must be present to meet a worker’s expectations and prevent job dissatisfaction
Relate to the environment in which it’s performed
Equity assumes a universal desire to be treated fairly relative to the way others are treated
My outcome = Salary, benefits, recognition, responsibility, ..
My inputs = Efforts, Commitment, skills, teamwork, ...
Turn poor performance into promising motivation
extract the need the person is trying to satisfy
use coaching
is person capable to achieve?
challenge the assumption
do you think you can do it? How can I help ? What do you lack?
does person trust his outcome will lead to reward?
ask him directly
check that the rewards is really worth the effort for it
challenge the assumption
ask about the outcome desired now, it should be consistent with Q1 needs
verify the person perceives his treated fairly relative to others doing same work
ask him directly
words that count
replace “but” by “and”: is always a safe choice
replace “must and should” by “can”: it takes away the pressure, and comfortably passes the responsibility with accountability.
replace the word “problem” with “challenge”: it always keeps the willingness to act higher
first, focus on +ve sides; next, focus on learning experience
use “We” instead of “you”: team spirit, implicit feeling of support
+ Support
otherwise, it's fuzzy
open choices vs closed choices (if I'm obligated)
afford time for discussion, measured by what you will get out of it. Invest in the person
coach him conclude the goals before you phrase them
Are you satisfied with your current status?
You see the company current status & future plans. How do you see yourself in the company in future?
He will tell you what motivates him, you package it and tell him
Re-question again if discussion deviated
When I'm satisfied, I then have a motive to move up
Will you promote a qualified, but knows people don't like him?
sudden or abnormal behavior similar to: a lot of time spent on not-important not-urgent issues, (e.g. chatting with others, facebook, social activities, coming late...), with perception he is performing well. Next action he leaves
reason: you gave him no opportunity to grow
asks questions like: Why X is getting higher salary? Why do I have to do this job?
lots of salary discussions
words in meetings express dissatisfaction
solution: not to get him a raise, it's to motivate him, listen, arrange for meetings
Neuro-linguistic programming
stated connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic"), and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life
turn emotional responses to capability challenges (can you ...)
Two-factor theory
away from
for what reason you wake up to go to work
after a long tough tiring bloody lousy yesterday
pain & pleasure are not necessary on same axis
don’t want to
want to avoid
want to
need to get stronger in every direction
should know the employee direction @ time of energizing
GROW Model
Knowledge Model
Active Listening
Open Discussion
Specifically what do we want to achieve in this session?
What's the long-term
objective in mind?
What's happening now?
What have you done so far?
Who / What is involved?
Make details clear and known
What could you do?
What options are available?
What new possibilities are there?
Commitment to Action
What will you do?
When will you do it?
What help do you need?
world knowledge
self awareness
Don't Know
Don't Know
teach, learn
coach, counsel
it's knowledge not skill
1. "ignorance is bliss", "any fool could do it". Reports: "something hasn't happened"!
2. unconscious competence
the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
unconscious mind is capable to store a lot of data, surprisingly found to be known when needed
Donald Rumsfeld: We know what we know, we know that there are things we do not know, and we know that there are things we don't know we don't know
is unlocking a person's potential to maximize their own performance
is a skill .. and a process
is helping others to learn, rather than teaching them
it's only 20% "Telling"
The coach is a Facilitator not and Advisor
The more the managerial level is the more coaching is needed, as it get more and more complicated
Directive, Pacesetting, and Coercive
Makes you feel good because you feel smart,
Makes the employee feel good because they got rid of their problem!
A lost opportunity to GROW the person.
New ideas lost by using yesterday's solution for today's problem,

YOUR solution for THEIR problem ?
You can easily be held responsible if things did not work out
Results in,
What? ... good for gathering information
How?... information about method
Where? Place
When? Time
Who? Person & things
probe questions, for details, e.g. when generalization or qualitative expressions are said
How much? How many? How often? ...
Why? Be careful, people get defensive
Seek detailed descriptive answers to increase awareness
Begin broadly and move to focus on detail
Put things into perspectives .."On a scale from 1 - 10.." what is you self-assessment => increase awareness !
Question initiates search process for solution
Follow their interest and use their words, to create trusted feedback loop.
Effective Questioning
Open Questions
Suspend judgment:
We listen out of our life experience
Be empathetic:
People's needs & feelings are different - respond to feelings

Paraphrase & summarize:
To signal you have listened ( you may take notes ...)
Maintain appropriate silence:
In order to listen you have to quiet your mind
Pay attention to verbal & nonverbal messages:
Listen to messages between the lines
Be patient:
Go slow to go fast, don't interrupt; Question is powerful - don't dilute ..
Be present - physically & mentally:
Your brain cannot work on two things simultaneously; You can't fake interest
Avoid personal involvement:
"I know the answer" attitude prevents from listening
No interpretations: Check what the coachee really means by ......? Clarify to confirm understanding
Step 1:
Set your goals
appropriate for your position and level of responsibility.
focused on the most significant contributions you can make.
including your development needed for the goals
discuss them with your manager, he knows the organizational objectives
employee, himself, to set his SMART goals, aligned with the organizational objectives, values, code, etc...
Step 2:
Document your Results
"himself", employees has the ownership
no excuse @ evaluation
Versus: Quality, Quantity, and Costs/savings
Meeting schedules or targets
Impact your results have had on your team or department
employee to document each goal results
it's very challenging for the employee: he has to convince his manager he achieved it
manager, should put the results in "reasonable figures" after over/underestimation tuning
coach employee if he is not capable to document
throughout the year and regularly seek feedback
Step 3:
Ratings and assessments
what you achieve against your goals and your contribution to company success
employee to assess and rate his achievement
manager to review the rates, adjust and clarify
employee may have difficulties rating his contribution, manager knows the impact on the company
should be done quarterly or semi-annual, only for feedback and tuning, in a non-final way
Agree on your team member’s goals
Ensure they document their results
Ratings & assessments
in evaluation there is "
no excuses
", "
after the fact it is an excuse
we do "
not evaluate effort, we evaluate result against goals
in assessment, don't compare employee with others (by name), to avoid debate.
top rated employees should be few --> challenging, so, employees target it
manager should frequently follow up employees who don't perform, coaching, change role, training, etc...
employee who didn't perform can have next year chance, otherwise, release him as he will demotivate others
employee can escalate if he is not satisfied with the evaluation
get prepared for employee evaluation meeting, guided with his whole brain thinking results
starts from the first step of evaluation management
employee should be & feel accountable
employee should feel ownership
asking for counseling must not be after the fact (evaluation)
if employee is rewarded
for effort for a failed project
, then next time he
won't be motivated

to help team
(team commitment)
if we failed, we need to move on strongly to next step with
lessons learned
, with
no rebuke
Set organization culture, to drive employee high-performance culture
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