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The Habsburg Empire (with answers)

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by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 31 January 2015

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Transcript of The Habsburg Empire (with answers)

Revolutions in the Habsburg Empire
The Revolutions of 1848
The Causes
- Population growth and bad
harvests

- Urban problems and
unemployment

- Nationalism (Italians, Czechs,
Hungarians
)

-Liberalism (middle-class requests for civil rights and new
constitution
)
The Fall of Metternich
- 12th March students asked for reforms to Austrian
Diet

- 3rd March - Hungary asked for
self government
- Emperor Ferdinand weak , chancellor
Metternich
forced to resign
- 15th March Emperor promised new
constitution
The April Laws
- Hungarians demanded self-
government under the
crown
- The demands were ratified
and known as "
The April Laws
"
- April Laws =
Constitutional
revolution but
- Non Magyar population of Hungary resented
Magyar
domination
- Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Romanians asked for
autonomy
The 2nd Viennese
revolution

- The promised constitution was
rejected

and crowd gathered outside
imperial
palace
- A new constitution with
universal manhood suffrage
was promised
- Riotous celebrations followed = Ferdinand and court fled to
Innsbruck
- Middle class liberals = loyal to
monarchy
- Radicals and workers demanded social improvements and a
Republic.
ITALY
- Metternich's fall = uprisings in
Lombardy

and
Venetia

- On
18th March
protestors presented petition in Milan

-
5 days
of street battles in Milan =
Radetzki
withdrew troops from city

- Rising of artisans and fisherman in
Venice
spread to middle classes =
Venetian Republic
.

- King Charles Albert of
Piedmont
marched into Lombardy and Radetzky
retreated
.


THE TURNING POINT
PRAGUE
- March 1848 Czechs demanded
liberal
reforms

-
June
1848 Slav congress in Prague - reinforced Slav
rivalry
( Czechs, Poles, SlovaKs, Serbs). No agreement.

- On
12th June
, riots in Prague for
5
days. Uprising severely subdued

- Closure of Slav
Congress
ITALY
-
25 July
Radetzky defeated Charles Albert
at
Custoza
- Austrians re-established control over
Milan
- Venice was
sieged

The October days in Vienna
- Workers protests in June and August were suppressed by the Middle Class
National Guard
-The real power was not with parliament but with the
ARMY

- In September 1848
Croatia
invaded Hungary

- The Emperor abolished the
April Laws
and dissolved the Hungarian
diet

- 6th Oct workers and students tried to stop soldiers from being sent to
Hungary
- revolts broke out

The revolt was brutally
sudued
by the end of October
The End of the Revolution
- In
December 1848
Emperor Ferdinand abdicated
in favour of his nephew
Francis Joseph
, who
believed in
absolute monarchism

- In March 1849
Charles Albert
of Piedmont was defeated again at
Novara
- In April 1849 Hungary deposed the
Habsburg
dynasty and declared itself totally
independent
- With the help of Russia, the Austrian army finally defeated the Magyars in
August 1849
- Venice capitulated also in
August 1849

army
revolutionaries not
united
(middle class/workers)
tension btwn different types of
nationalism
peasants
not interested in revolutions .' . little mass support
In Italy only
Piedmont
supported Lombardy, Pius IX condemned
anti- Habsburg
rising
News of the defeat of French radicals during June Days gave the
Austrian
army the confidence to crush the
Prague
rising.
Reasons for the defeat of the revolution
Full transcript