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Transcript of Lightning
By: Jules Barton and Tiffany So
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Definition Of Lightning
Lightning is one of the ,most deadly natural occurrences known to man, creating temperatures hotter than the surface of the sun and shock waves beaming out in all directions.
Types of Lightning
streak lightning- lightning that looks like a single jagged line of light
ribbon lightning- lightning that looks like several streaks of lightning hitting the ground together
intro cloud lightning- lightning that occurs in a cloud
The Relationship Of Lightning And Thunder
Thunder is the sound caused by lightning; extreme heating from lightning (30,000 degrees celcius) makes air expand at an explosive rate. This makes a shockwave making a booming sound wave that we know as thunder.
The Formation Of Lightning
A thunderstorm is made up of ice crystals and hailstones. The ice crystals have a positive charge and the hailstones have a negative charge. Updrafts push ice crystals up to the top of the storm cloud, but at the same time, a downdraft pushes the hailstones down to the bottom of the storm cloud. This separates the positive and negative charges making the cloud have 2 levels. In a thunderstorm, earth is positively charged making the negative charges from the bottom of the cloud want to link with the positively charged surface of the earth. When the negative charge gets big enough, a wave of negative charges goes down to the positive charges of earth (a stepped leader). The positive charges of earth attracts to the stepped leader creating a wave of positive charges travel into air. When the stepped leader and the positive charges meet, a strong electric current takes the positive charges into the cloud. The electric current is the return stroke that humans can see.
Sheet lightning-normal lightning that is reflected in the clouds
Heat lightning- normal lightning near the horizon that is reflected by high clouds
Ball lightning- a phenomenon where lightning forms a slow, moving ball that can burn objects in its path before exploding or burning out. Its also rare
St. Elmo's fire- a type of lightning that looks like a green glow and that appears around the tip of objects, such as sailboat mast or airplane wings
More types of lightning
Van DE Graaff Generators
Lightning strikes the earth 8 or 9 million times every day-50-100 times every second
The ancient Greeks believed that lightning belonged to Zeus, the king of gods
Forked lightning appears to zigzag down the sky in a single jagged line of light
Pilots usually fly around the thunderstorms to avoid lightning
Most commercial jets are struck by lightning about once a year
Van DE Graaff- an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high amounts of electrical potential on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J.Van DE Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van DE Graaff generator can reach 5 mega-volts. A table top version can produce on the order of 100,000 volts and can store enough energy to produces a visible spark.
Lightning causes forest fires that destroy millions of acres of trees and bushes each year
About 1,500 people are struck by lightning in the Untied States each year
150-300 people are killed from lightning
Your chances by being struck by lightning is very little
Lightning is attracted to the highest objects in an area. So never stand under a tree or high grounds during thunder storms
When you first hear thunder or see lightning get inside a building or vehicle IF OUTSIDE: avoid water, high grounds, open spaces, and metal objects. Find a shelter in a close vehicle or in a substantial building. If lightning is nearby crouch down with hands on your ears. Stay away from other people. IF INSIDE: stay away from windows and electric appliances.
Relationship Between thunder And Lightning
Lightning is the cause of thunder: extreme heating from lightning (30,000 degrees Celsius) makes the air expand at an explosive rate, which makes a shock wave, which makes a loud booming sound wave that we know as thunder.
A Thunderstorm:a small storm often accompanied by lots of precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning.