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on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of Beethoven

Early personal life and Classical Period
Early period
Middle period
Late period
Early Family Influence
Born in December 16, 1770 in Bonn to Maria Magdalena Keverich and Johann van Beethoven
Had six siblings but only two survived infancy
Beethoven’s father was "Kapelmeister" at the court of Elector
Beethoven’s grandfather, who he was named after, was a bass player and choirmaster
Both his father and grandfather taught Beethoven and prepared him from a young age for a life of music
His cousin, Franz Rozantini taught him to play the violin and viola
Beethoven’s father had much harsher teaching techniques than his grandfather and was ruthless in his attempts to transform the young boy into a musical genius
Maria was loving, nurturing, and supportive

Tragic Adolescence
His father lost his job due to alcoholism which forced Beethoven to support himself but his father continued to overwork him
At the age of eleven Beethoven dropped out of primary school to study music full time
Beethoven’s mother passed away when he was a teenager

Beethoven dies
Beethoven is born
Late Period
Megan Gutter
Aaron Kupin
Morgan Schultz
Vivian Tan
• Inflammatory fever
• Deteriorating deafness (Completely deaf in 1824)
• Illness & Death of his brother Carl
• Suicide attempt of nephew Karl
• Lawsuits for custody of Karl
• Studying renewed older music by Bach & Handel
• Unfounded apprehensions of poverty

Choral Works
1822 'Missa Solemnis'
• Also known as 'Mass in D'
• Incorporates historic musical and liturgical symbols
• Extends far greater, and in manner far more detailed than an uninformed listener can be aware of
• Choral treatment owes something to Handel- Theme “Dona nobis pacem” is adapted from Handel’s melody to the words “And He shall reign forever and ever’ in the Hallelujah Chorus.
• Planned musical unit: Symphony in five movements

Piano Works
1823, Diabelli Variations
Last five piano sonatas written between 1816 & 1821
• Blurring the demarcations between sections and theme-groups in creating gigantic structures

• Piano Sonata No. 28 in A major, Op 101
• Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat major, Op 106, “Hammerklavier”
• Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major, Op. 109
• Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat major, Op. 110
• Piano Sonata No. 32 in C minor, Op. 222

33 Variations on a Waltz bu Anton Diabelli, Op.120
Commonly known as Diabelli Variations
Written by 1819-1823 by Beethoven on a waltz composed by Anton Diabelli
Vaterländischer Künstlerverein
Anton Schindler- Schusterfleck, wrote 33 variations to demonstrate his prowess
Model for Schumann’s “Symphonic Etudes” & Brahms “Variations of a Theme of Handel”
No doubt the definition fits the work perfectly – "musical sequences repeated one after another, each time modulated at like intervals" – as can be seen clearly in these three examples:

Orchestral Works
Ninth Symphony
Idea conceived as 1793, but completed in 1824, first performed on Friday, May 1824
Know because of his sketches
Completed when Beethoven was completely deaf
First composer to include human voice at same level as instruments
Chorus and Solo Voices in the finale
Not meant to include vocal movement
Based on two ethical ideals:
Universal brotherhood of man through joy
The Love of an eternal heavenly Father
Still a product of the Classical tradition and of the age of Enlightenment and revolution despite relatively late date of composition
Fourth movement:
Chamber Works
1822-1826, 5 final string Quartets
Op. 127 in E-flat - completed February 1825 Op. 132 in A minor - completed July 1825
Op. 130 in B-flat - completed November 1825 Op. 131 in C-sharp minor - completed July 1826 Op. 135 in F - completed October 1826
Opp. 127, 132, and 130, arose from a commission from the Russian Prince Galitzin. All three were completed in 1825.
Op. 127- 4 movements
Op 132 – 5 movements
Op. 130- huge original form 6 movements
Similarity: Each quartet has a slow movement and is followed w/o transition by incongruous material
Dedicated to Baron Joseph von Stutterheim
Gesture of gratitude for taking Karl into the army after failed suicide attempt
Schubert: “After this, what is left for us to write?”
Early Period (1794-1800)
“Classical Composers’ Influence”
French Influence
French music impinged on him from two main directions
From the Mannheim School of composers, whose artistic links with Paris had always been strong
From the Bonn National theater, which relied for its repertory mainly on comic operas translated from the FrenchIn fashionable Bonn society, sympathy with the French Revolution was very strong, and the flavour of the French Revolutionary march is present in many of Beethoven’s symphonic allegros

Chamber Works
Beethoven's classicism is strongest in his chamber music for or with winds
Several duet sonatas- most famous is Op. 24 violin sonata
Six string quartet- Beethoven learned the art of developing motives and animating the texture by means of counterpoint from Haydn's example
However, his individuality is evident in the character of the themes, the frequent unexpected turns of  phrase, the unconventional modulations, and some subtleties of formal structure
Orchestral Works
Major Work: First Symphony
Radical introduction- omitted the stating the unison tonic, established his tonic by circumscribing it
2nd movement- possesses contrapuntal tours de force, a legacy of his study with Albrechtsberger
3rd movement- full-blown scherzo though entitled "minuetto,” with a finale has the playfulness of Haydn's last movements
Spirit and many of technical features stem from Haydn
Considered the most classical of all his symphonies
Individuality is expressed through details of his treatment of the formal structures, the unusual prominence given to the woodwinds, and his attention to dynamic shading
Mozart's Influences
Beethoven wrote cadnezas to the first and third movements of Mozart’s D minor concierto, and four sets of variations on themes by Mozart (composed in first period)
The first movement of Beethoven's First piano Concierto in C Major (composed 1796-77) references Mozart’s “Jupiter” symphony in C major)
Beethoven learned from Mozart’s use of lyricism and humor
Carl Phillip Emannuel Bach’s Influence
Raised on the sonatas and teachings of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, the chief exponent of “expressive” music at a time when music was regarded as the art of pleasing sounds
Sharp conflicts of mood that characterize the sonatas of C.P.E. Bach appear very powerfully again in Beethoven’s work
To Beethoven, “feeling” was as important in practice as it was in theory to his master Neefe, who proclaimed it the only condition of artistic value
For those who claim Beethoven as a Romantic, this emphasis on feeling is paramount

Piano Works
Piano was the dominant instrument in Beethoven’s compositions through the first period
In his early piano sonatas, Beethoven utilized formal experimentation (derived from Haydn) and originality
Moods ranged from tempestuousness (two C minor sonatas) to playfulness (Op. 10, No. 2)
Frequent use of octaves, the thick full texture of piano writing, and harmonic attributes were influenced by Clementi
Dedicated to the Countess Anne Margarete von Browne, Sonata No. 7 in D major (Op. 10 No. 3) is considered finest sonata of the period
Transitional Works
Written during the beginning of his progressive loss of hearing
Piano sonatas between Op. 26 and Op. 31 show most clearly the dissolution of the composer's earliest style and his groping for new means of expression
Violin sonatas of Op. 30, powerful Op. 37 piano concerto, and the Second Symphony
Symphony has large dimensions and a profusion of thematic material held together in perfect formal balance
Its capriciousness and playfulness exceed Haydn’s
Early Life and Classical Period
Christian-Gottlob Neefe, Beethoven’s first steady teacher, gave him notoriety through his writings in a musical magazine: " This young genius deserves to be supported in his artistic endeavors. If he continues in the same manner he started, he is sure to become a second Wolfgang-Amadeus Mozart " He was more a father figure than his own father and Beethoven once wrote dearly of him: "If I ever will amount to anything, this will undoubtedly be your merit. "
Hopeful Influence
Middle Period (1803-1812)
"Heroic Period"
Return to Vienna
Approaching deafness
French Revolution and Napoleon
'Eroica' Symphony
Failed love
Distinguishing musical features
Approaching Deafness
1801 - Beethoven confesses he is slowly becoming deaf to a friend
"I must confess that I lead a miserable life. For almost two years I have ceased to attend any social functions, just because I find it impossible to say to people: I am deaf."
1802 - Wrote a testament to his brothers regarding his thoughts of suicide
Art kept him living
French Revolution and Napoleon
Inspired by liberating spirit of French Revolution
1804 - Dedicated Symphony no. 3 in Napoleon's honor
Later became disillusioned with Napoleon after he named himself emperor
Retitled "Eroica Symphony"
Themes of death, anxiety, aggression
Fidelio opera
Grand, dramatic works
Failed Love
Fell in love with aristocratic women, even married women
Never worked out, often depressed
Love letter
Inspiration for many compositions
Moonlight Sonata
Countess Giulietta Guicciardi
Distinguishing Musical Features
Haydn and Mozart's influence still prominent
Darker and heavier feel
Modulation and juxtaposition
Germ motive
Symphony no. 5
Classical Period (1730-1820)
Age of Enlightenment
Public concerts increased in popularity
The piano took the place of harpsichord
A lot of mood variation within pieces
Primarily homophonic- musical parts move together
Clear phrases and cadences
Orchestras became more prominent and grew in number of musicians
Similar to Mozart
Fate knocking on the door
Trombone and piccolo
Horn solo given to bassoons
Repetition of opening motif
Full transcript