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Rapazzini Shumaker Conflict Map

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Alexandra Rapazzini

on 2 July 2013

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Transcript of Rapazzini Shumaker Conflict Map

Still prevalent also in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic
The Cote D'Ivoire Blood Diamond Trade & its Influence on Civil War: An Analysis for Promoting Peace and Sustainable Economic Options
Primary and Secondary Parties
Country is split into 2: Rebel-held north and Government-held south
Alliances and Adversaries
Alassane Ouattara, FNCI and associated government officials

Guillaume Soro

De Beers, UK and American diamond markets, world diamond trade, neighboring countries and associated government officials of: Liberia, Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea
Primary parties- Ouattara supporters and southern government (Gbagbo) rebels, Laurent Gbagbo, and Allassane Ouattara and his associated government officials.

Gbagbo supporters identify under the title of Ivorian Popular Front

Ouattara supporters identify under the group title of the Forces Nouvelles, also known as the Forces Nationales de Cote d'Ivoire (FNCI). FNCI is rumored to be transferring into the nation's military

Secondary parties- Guillaume Soro, United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI), Daniel Kablan Duncan, and Pascal Affi N'Guessan
Third Parties
Organization for the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme = placed sanctions against exporting diamonds from Cote d'Ivoire

Partnership Africa Canada is an active watchdog that produces yearly reports called the "Annual Review" in which they discuss the success and failures surrounding the Kimberly Process and the African diamond trade

UN Peacekeepers- UNOCI peacekeepers are actively deployed to increase patrols and fill the security vacuum
Forces Nationales
de Cote d'Ivoire
Ivorian Popular Front
Laurent Gbagbo
Allassane Ouattara
Guillaume Soro
Daniel Kablan Duncan
Pascal Affi N'Guessan
National Grievances
Torture, lives lost, child soldiers, rape, international inefficacy, refugees, continued human rights abuses, social and political instability
Alassane Ouattara
Laurent Gbagbo
Ivorian Popular Front
Grievances- Gbagbo lost presidential seat, exiled, and runs a diminishing rebel group, lack of resources and political leverage. No international credibility due to accusations of severe crimes against humanity.
President of the Ivory Coast. He feels powerful and completely in control of Ivory Coast's current conflict. Ouattara and his supporters (including the FNCI) ousted Gbagbo in 2010, largely due to the revenue they obtained from the diamond mines. They are also systematically murdering all current and previous supporters of Gbagbo
Values: power, support, the diamond trade, success, demobilization and disarmament, human rights, international respect and credibility

Positions: wants to subdue the conflict by enacting the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Program, wants to benefit from the wealth diamonds produce (just not conflict diamonds), nationalize the mines so death diminishes while also promoting economic growth, wants diamond ban lifted, wants to export diamonds

Interests: wants the diamond embargo lifted so he can sell diamonds to the international market, wants to see Gbagbo permanently ousted and/or dead, wants to remain in power, see Gbagbo's supporters dwindle, looking for peace and to sell diamonds legally, deescalating the conflict, adhering the the Kimberly Process

Needs: the Kimberly Process so that they can sell diamonds to the international community, stay in power, international recognition, to limit human rights abuses, disarmament, economic growth to ensure a platform for reelection, personal diamond revenue, supporters

Frames: sees the civil war as over, now that he has won; sees himself as the winner, as the rightful presidential candidate; sees diamond revenue as the only way to keep economy afloat (resource curse), and sees himself as controlling the direction of the country and the conflict

Internal dispute: He wants to adopt the Kimberly Process, but rebel commanders are still smuggling conflict diamonds into other countries in exchange for guns and money. Due to this, the UN is unwilling to allow Ivory Coast to join the KP.
Attributes Continued...
Originally a rebel group from the north that is being integrating into a national military. Their founder and leader is Guillaume Soro. Soro formed the Forces Nouvelles (New Forces) in efforts of ousting Laurent Gbagbo and his ethnic exclusionary policies.
Attributes Continued...
values: diamond mines, power, success, money, respect, authority, Ouattara

positions: very loyal to Ouattara, maintaining power, maintaining northern occupation of the mines, fight for Ouattara/fight against Gbagbo supporters

interests: in continuing diamond mines and selling illegally to neighboring countries, continue conflict and running the northern mines for stable revenue, continue human rights abuses to maintain power, continue having arms thus, do not want to disarm.
Former President and "Supreme Leader" of the Ivory Coast. Lived a significant part of his life in exile. Founder of the Ivorian Popular Front. He held office for 10 years as a brutal dictator with significant exclusionary ethnic policies. He discriminated against all whose heritage was not Ivorian, especially those from Burkina Faso (Ouattara's ethnic heritage).
Internal divisions- prime ministers have denied Gbagbo support, and has diminishing loyal supporters
Needs- support, money, to be released from ICC sanctions and detainment, needs better health conditions, international credibility, trust, legitimacy

Frames- does not see himself as a warlord, not guilty for alleged crimes against humanity, fought for democracy the entire tenure, cheated out of his seat, tried not to fuel civil war just tried to remain loyal to his adored supporters
Attributes Continued...
Values: power, money, economic prosperity, success, wealth, obedience, support, health, revenge

Positions: claims presidential seat because Ouattara "does not rightfully deserve his position", lost to the diamond mine profiteers and their power, hates Ouattara because he caused the uprisings and civil war against his reign, might be too late to return given health conditions, maybe pretending to promote peace (personal & realistic ambitions unclear)

Interests: revenge for presidential seat removal, wants to see Ouattara fall, interested in the money that the diamond trade brings in, wants popular support back, wants success, and wants better health
Center-left, democratic socialist party. Formal political party turned rebel group in support of Gbagbo. Member of Socialist International but got expelled in 2011 as a result of Gbagbo's demise. Party's President is Pascal Affi N'Guessan. The party is loosing traction due to Gbagbo's absence/dwindling presence.
Values: Gbagbo's rule, strength, credibility, socialism, efficacy, power, wealth, strong presence, military capabilities

Positions: defeat Ouattara and defeat his supporters, get Gbagbo rightfully back into power, Ouattara wrongfully rigged the elections with conflict diamond revenue, Gbagbo is innocent and should not be on trial at the Hague, wants the government to enact socialist policies

Interests: justice for Ouattara/revenge, gaining support for Gbagbo, avoid arrests by Ouattara officials, better economic conditions, disarmament program implemented even for Ouattara supporters, make it possible to establish their existence (true democracy)
Attributes Continued...
Needs: support, money, Gbagbo's return, stop being detained by Ouattara officials, justice, shelter, food, trust, credibility, international acknowledgment

Frames: Gbagbo is the rightful leader, he did not do the crimes he is being accused of, they think Ouattara cheated because of money from diamond mines, he gained power from conflict diamond revenue and now the country is suffering

Internal Divisions: formal leaders are abandoning because loss of support, traction and Gbagbo's diminishing health conditions, Pascal was also asked to step down

Grievances: Gbagbo's arrest, loss of support, loss of members, detainment of participants, loss of resources, diminishing leverage among the populous
Side one is composed of: Alassane Outtara, Daniel Kablan Duncan, Guillaume Soro and the FNCI rebel group.

Alassane Outtara is the current President of Ivory Coast. Alassane succeeded Laurent Gbagbo by a highly controversial election in 2010. Despite public denial, it is said that Ouattara was able to win the popular vote by using blood diamond revenue to fund a rebellion that overthrew Gbagbo's regime.
Where is Ivory Coast?
Plagued by civil war since 2002, Ivorian's still experience violent conflict. To simplify the complex civil war, warring parties are predominantly the supporters of former President Laurent Gbagbo and current incumbent, Alassane Ouattara. Ouattara took the Presidential seat by an extremely controversial election that required international intervention. Alassane Ouattara was declared the rightful winner in 2010 but loyal Gbagbo forces refuse to acknowledge the victory and are still resisting. It is said that Ouattara was able to successfully take power because he fueled nation-wide rebellion with the revenue from his northern-held diamond mines.

The original conflict began when Gbagbo's predecessor, Robert Guei, passed a law that requires both parents of a presidential candidate to be native to Ivory Coast. This law excluded Alassane Ouattara from the presidential race as well his numerous northern Muslim supporters. The new law left Gbagbo as the only remaining viable candidate. Gbagbo took power in 2000 and reigned as a dictator until 2010.
Now we will take you to a more specific timeline...
Index & Further Reading
Ivorian Conflict Timeline
Alassane Ouattara returns from the IMF to run for president

New legislation is passed, which requires true Ivorian heritage in order to run for presidency, thus ousting Ouattara from the presidential candidacy
Gbagbo assumes presidency. Ouattara begins obtaining money and arms to overthrow Gbagbo via diamond trade revenue
Attempted rebellion/coup against Gbagbo. Government forces brutally cracked down and labeled the north as foreigners creating nation wide ethnic divide. Country divided into northern Ouattara supporters and southern Gbagbo supporters.
this created a threat to identity for the northern Muslims, catapulting the conflict into an intractable conflict via ethnic segregation
Ouattara attempts to run for president but Gbagbo postpones the elections because Ouattara is "unfit" for presidency via the Ivorian heritage law. This angers Guillaume Soro, who creates the FNCI rebel group
2010- Soro is angered by Gbagbo's unwillingness to step down. Ouattara invites the FNCI to join his efforts and Soro leads the FNCI in officially ending Gbagbo's regime

2010- Despite Gbagbo's efforts, Ouattara wins the 2010 election via diamond trade revenue

2011- Gbagbo is arrested at his home by his opponents and transferred to the Hague for prosecution of human rights violations
The red arrow that corresponds with this green number one highlights the rivalry between Ouattara and Gbagbo
In order to clearly mark the allies and adversaries, we have grouped the primary parties into side one and two.
The blues arrows that correspond with the green number two indicate Soro's alliance with Ouattara's current regime and his leadership of the FNCI. Soro was Prime Minister from April 4th 2007- March 13th 2012, serving under both Ouattara and Gbagbo.
Alassane was assisted in obtaining presidency by the FNCI rebel group, or Forces Nationales Cote d'Ivoire. This alliance is indicated by green number three

Guillaume Soro was the leader of the FNCI rebel group prior to obtaining his seat as Prime Minister for both Gbagbo and Ouattara. Even though Soro was Gbagbo's Prime Minister, they are bitter enemies. Soro frequently speaks of how he took up arms with the FNCI in order to over throw Gbagbo's regime (see source ) This rivalry is indicated by green number four
(Click next to further read about Soro's rivalry with Gbagbo, click next again to return back to this slide)
Soro lead a coup against Gbagbo with the FNCI forces because of his hatred for Gbagbo's exclusionary ethnic policies. In hopes of stopping the coup, Gbagbo offered Soro Prime Ministership. However, Soro resigned after a short three years because Gbagbo refused to step down and acknowledge Ouattara as a viable successor. This is when the FNCI was invited by Ouattara to join him in over- throwing Gbagbo's regime. When Ouattara obtained presidency, Soro continued as Prime Minister until reelection in November of 2012.
Guillaume Soro, the leader of the FNCI leads a coup against Gbagbo. Gbagbo tries to stop the coup by giving Soro the Prime Ministership in 2007.
Soro's hatred for Gbagbo stems from their different ethnic backgrounds and Gbagbo's exclusionary ethnic policies. Gbagbo's policies that favor ethnic segregation lead to nation-wide hatred for his regime
Green number five is placed on Daniel Duncan. This number is to signify his placement on side one. He is the current Prime Minister under Ouattara's regime. Thus, his loyalty is among the parties on side one.
Side two includes: the former President Laurent Gbagbo, his rebel supporters The Ivorian Popular Front, and the leader of the Ivorian Popular Front, Pascal Affi N'Gussan. This side is labeled with a red font to indicate the angry and violent nature of Gbagbo and his supporters. They oppose Ouattara's current regime whom is taking a more peace-oriented approach to the overall democratic growth of Ivory Coast
Green number six indicates the rivalry between the Gbagbo supporters/rebel group Ivorian Popular Front and Ouattara supporters/rebel group FNCI. Their rivalry is obvious because one supports the current regime and the other supports Gbagbo's supposed claim to power. Number six also signifies the link between Pascal's leadership of the Ivorian Popular Front and the rebel group itself.
Recall: this number signifies Gbagbo's placement on side two because he is rivals with Ouattara's current regime and his associated supporters
"Exports of blood diamonds have underwritten gruesome civil wars in Africa for more than 15 years. To combat the trade, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme was drafted in 2003 and has been widely hailed as a success. But even though the diamond-funded conflicts of the 1990s are over and most of the countries involved now mine and export diamonds legally, the Ivory Coast remains the only exception. Despite the ban, diamond mining and extraction is booming in the north-central Ivorian district of Séguéla, where new deposits have "significantly increased" the country's rough diamond production, a group of experts concluded in a report for the United Nations Sanctions Committee."

Ouattara is now in power and the FNCI still is heavily present in the north. Additionally, this group maintains control over the diamond mines that are in the north. They continue to trade with neighboring countries illegally. It is unclear whether or not Ouattara receives revenue from these mines but the rebel group leaders and their affiliates still do. Recall: These funds helped finance Ouattara's incumbency and rebellion to achieve the presidential seat. The main idea though, is that there is an immense amount of wealth concentrated in the diamond mining industry, thus, this attracts and maintains power in cruel and merciless individuals/groups.

Ivory Coast currently remains the only country that is banned from the international diamond market. Thus, Ouattara's current political efforts are heavily based on reintegrating Ivorian diamonds into the international market. Since Ouattara's election, he claims that the country is no longer at war, thus, should be allowed to sell diamonds to international buyers.

However, the UN has voted to keep the ban due to the continuation of illegal trafficking to neighboring countries. Another reason is because it might potentially corrupt the process to achieve a national army. The closet group to a national army is the FNCI, which currently controls the diamond mines while also illegally exporting diamonds. The UN is skeptical due to the FNCI involvement in assisting Ouattara to power.

Even with an estimated $18-20 million diamond production value, allowing Ivorian diamonds into the market is still pending and currently being discussed on an international scale.
See source
Current Conflict Standing
This timeline shows in a more comprehensive manner how Ouattara came to power and ousted Laurent Gbagbo.
Worst reported Incident so far: "Hundreds of ethnic Guere civilians who were supposedly pro-Gbagbo were massacred in the western town of Duekoue by forces loyal to Ouattara. Witnesses claimed to have seen pro-Ouattara forces executing civilians who were not militia. According to a local women who lost her husband in the attack, the soldiers shouted "we're here to kill Gbagbo, but since you the Guere voted for Gbagbo, we'll kill you, we'll kill you until the last Guere.""
Driving Forces;
The Resource Curse

If Blood Diamonds further interest you...Take a look at this documentary:

"Rebel groups in the Ivory Coast continue to carry illicit diamonds across the country's borders despite a UN ban on the export of Ivorian diamonds. “Revenues from the illegal trade are probably buying arms for the New Forces rebel group in the north,” says Paige McClanahan of Christian Science Monitor.""
Also known as the Forces Nouvelles, or New Forces
"The New Forces have controlled the northern half of Ivory Coast since 2002. Nearly all of Ivory Coast's diamond deposits are located in the north, where the rebel group levies taxes on the extraction and trade of the stones. The UN prohibited all exports and imports of Ivorian diamonds in 2005, citing links to the rebels. The embargo has been extended ever since." Source
needs: need money from blood diamonds, need support, need to have their arms for defense and deter attacks, diamonds and the international market, leadership

frames: see themselves as in control of the diamond trade of Ivory Coast because they control all economic and trade aspects and receive all diamond revenue, they see themselves as the superior organized civilian group, they see themselves as indispensable, they see themselves and the party most loyal to Ouattara and favored by him, they see the conflict as controlled by them because of the recent transition into a military force.

grievances: being banned from selling diamonds to the international market, government pressure to stop selling illegally, and the current formation of a national military threatens their power and stability as a strong rebel force

internal divisions: high commanders are still selling blood diamonds to neighboring countries despite Ouattara's efforts of trying to limit the blood diamond trade. Ouattara is trying to be apart of the Kimberly Process and prevent actions of these high commanders. There is also a likelihood of government subsidizing the mines
removing limbs is also a very horrendous and common consequence of the diamond trade
"After becoming president in 2000, however, he adopted draconian measures to stifle political dissent and manipulated issues of nationality and religion to maintain power."
"Gbagbo faces four counts of crimes against humanity for allegedly fomenting the wave of violence as he refused to hand over to election winner Ouattara after 10 years in power. He has denied the charges against him."
"Former Ivory Coast president Laurent Gbagbo's party announced Thursday it would boycott the regional and local elections scheduled for April 21 2013, saying the vote would not be fair...He also said his party would not recognize the results of what he called a "sham election", accusing the country's independent electoral commission of being incompetent and illegal and in need of reform."

This is published March 21st 2013, highlighting the very current persistence of the Ivorian Popular Front in obtaining justice for Gbagbo since Ouattara "illegally stole the election".
Past, Present, and Future Disputes
"Many observers question whether Ouattara’s focus on economic growth, confirmed by the appointment of Daniel Kablan Duncan, an economist and former finance minister, as the head of the new government in November 2012, can successfully bring stability and peace to a country that remains so divided politically."
Ivory Coast ended a 30-year presidency in 1993 under Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the first president. Since his death he has been recognized as Ivory Coast's miracle and one of the longest and best African leaders of all time. However, after his death Ivory Coast dealt with democratic, competitive elections for the first time and the county spiraled into rebellion, coups, currency devaluation, recession, and agricultural demise. Each leader from then on came to power through a coup, rebellion, or self-proclamation due to controversial elections. Ivory Coast has been plagued with political instability from overt power expressions at the executive level as well as heavy amounts of election violence.
These power-hungry and ruthless leaders following Boigny enacted policies that favored their neo-patrimonial inclusion and are explicitly undemocratic. Ethnic tensions surfaced after Boigny's death. Former President Robert Guei instituted a law that the mother and father of a presidential candidate must be from Ivory Coast. Additionally, there were systematic murders of Ivorian "foreigners" predominantly of those from Burkina Faso. This threatened the identity and security of almost 30% of the population, contributing to the dramatic rebellion and instability within the country. This is the main dispute that caused the first Ivorian civil war.
One of the most major obstacles to achieving peace, is that the civilians are unable to trust their government. The civilians feel unsafe, threatened, and afraid. "UNOCI officials told us that it is the duty of the state to protect civilians. However, as the national forces firstly under Gbagbo and then under Ouattara themselves committed horrific crimes, how can we expect them to protect the civilian population?" Gbagbo had his militant forces brutally suppressing rebels, coups, and protests while Ouattara's militant forces are executing Gbagbo's present and past supporters. Gbagbo was also known for murdering those he labeled as "foreigners".
The second and foremost important reason why Ivory Coast is even still experiencing violence, is due to the continual production of blood diamonds. In the north, the FNCI still holds control and maintains the production of conflict diamonds to neighboring countries. This is why the UN will not lift the ban off production to the international market.
we anticipate that the ban will continue to be instituted until there is a national military that is implemented. Currently the closest entity to a national military is the FNCI, which obviously is not credible or formidable for a national military. A lack of a national army that will be able to enforce the elimination of illegal conflict diamond production is hindering Ivory Coast's reintegration into the international diamond trade. Ouattara will therefore need to dismantle the FNCI before this can be achieved, an uneasy decision when the FNCI ensured his presidential seat.
Conflict Transformation Model
Power Elements
Conflict Dynamics
"We want the diamond embargo lifted. Today, Ivory Coast is not a country at war," Fatimata Thes, the ministry of mines official heading the lobbying effort, told Reuters. "We want to take full advantage of our wealth and practise good governance by exerting control over the marketing process." - as of June, 2012
A future anticipated dispute lies within the formation of a national army. Ouattara's regime been heavily reliant on the elite FNCI teams to enforce his policies. This opposes the international community's desire for trusted and accountable national security forces. The FNCI has also been documented committing human rights abuses by killing Gbagbo supporters. There is no national military that protects every person no matter their political preference.
Another anticipated dispute, is the continuation of the ethnic violence and segregation. Gbagbo supporters plan on protesting the midterm elections that are slated for April 21st 2013. This can lengthen ethnic tensions and harbor violent acts from both Ouattara and Gbagbo supporters
The UN can potentially maintain the ban on the export of Ivorian diamonds. This will create numerous economic obstacles for Ouattara and inflict continued economic deprivation on its populous. Additionally, the conflict diamond trade will then continue violently and illegally.
this is because Alassane's supporters, the FNCI, control the diamond mines located in the north of Ivory Coast. They also are illegally exporting diamonds to neighboring countries. Ouattara is a profiteer because he was said to have used money from conflict diamonds to fund the rebellions that got him into power.
Soro is also a profiteer because he has lead the FNCI throughout the years in the exportation of illegal diamonds and in assisting/overthrowing government officials
Lastly, another dispute that might affect the stability of Ivory Coast, will be the trial and sentence of former President Gbagbo. Gbagbo is currently being tried at the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity (murder, rape, other sexual violence, persecution, inhumane acts) that occurred post-presidential election in 2010. The outcome will anger some and please others.
At least 3,000 people died and more than a million were displaced in the Ivorian crisis, in which cocoa exports ceased, banks closed and shops were ransacked.
"In a brief statement at the end of the confirmation of charges hearing on February 28, Gbagbo defended himself especially concerning his presumed intention to stay in power undemocratically. He declared, “I am here because I respected the constitution.” He claimed that he has been a strong advocate for democracy for a very long time because he believes it is the only way for Africa to build its nations. In his view, democracy helps to overcome tensions between heterogeneous groups and gives each of them a voice. He also explained that he believed his case will not be addressed properly without considering what happened during the elections. He argued that “democracy is not only the vote but who tells the result of the vote." He finally argued that this is the ones who lost the election, Ouattara and his allies, who caused the turmoil."
Limit/reverse Destructive Escalation
Options for Change
In order to stop destructive escalation, one possibility we have considered is the implementation for multiparty elections that are free and fair. Midterm elections are held for April 21st 2013 and with the UN peacekeeping forces active until June 2013, they can help diffuse violent protesting during the elections
Ouattara is asking for post-war reconstruction aid. With rampant corruption, the economy is failing due to significant money laundering. Ouattara is aware of how to fix the issue, since his prior job was at the IMF. Therefore, since he is failing, we purpose that the IMF implement structural adjustment policies and give aid on the condition that the government create more transparency, create infrastructure, harbor democratic policies by instituting free and fair elections. Although this must be done over time and not within a single electoral cycle. It will take time to break the vicious habits of this war-torn state. Additionally, Ivory Coast needs presidential term limits so dictators can no longer reign.

Increased transparency might create more trust for the government among the population. Creating free and fair elections would stop the escalation of violence significantly, especially since all documented violence surrounds Ivory Coast's controversial elections. Infrastructure would prevent the people from falling farther into the immense deprivation of basic human needs. The government needs to be able to provide the people with the necessities to live.

Another extremely important step towards peace, is eliminating the "Ivorite" Law. This law classifies Ivorians based on their ethnic origin and deprives millions of their right to citizenship. Eradicating this law will promote peace and eliminate ethnic divides that plague the nation with violence.

We also recommend a caucus that is more representative of the Ivorian population. Essentially, a proportionally represented caucus. Laws can be reviewed by this caucus, therefore, policies will be passed that truly favor the people. This can help facilitate peace at the most powerful level. This is also a step towards effective democracy.
Overcome Wrongs
Charter for Compassion
One of the peace and reconciliation efforts we would institute would be a Muslim-Christian Alliance Awareness Campaign. In Ivory Coast there is a huge divide between the Muslims of the north who support Ouattara and the Christians of the south who support Gbagbo. By bridging the gap between the two religions, we could promote understanding and awareness so that we could nullify the hatred between the two groups. It was done in Liberia and proved very successful. The women of Liberia banned together, Muslim and Christian, to wear white and pressure their government for peace. They put so much pressure that the not only was peace achieved, but they had free and fair elections where a woman president was elected.
Ivory Coast does not know compassion and we think a nation-wide education plan on these religious divisions would harbor peace and promote social progress. This is a more grassroots oriented approach that deals with the population first and government last. This will help recognize common humanity and empathy so that we can create social healing and social change. We need to identify the similarities between the religions and more importantly, similarities among human beings/humanity in general.
This is how we can begin to constructively confront fears, hatred, deeply embedded emotions, and violent tendencies. This campaign will help limit misunderstanding between multiple cultures so that non-violence can be fostered as a social movement.
To achieve balance...
Corresponding with the Muslim-Christian Alliance Awareness Campaign, it is important to implement a mechanism for sustainability for peace. Perhaps getting the two ethnic and religious groups intertwined in committed relationships that promote dialogue and communication rather that overt violence.
For example: we recommend community action. Community meeting and sports teams that will encourage working together for a greater good. Also, since the groups are geographically divided, perhaps a nation-wide Peace Convention where both the north and the south can come together and learn about peace while also facilitating discussion between the two groups. Also, a nation wide sports league of various disciplines so that it can encompass a greater portion of the population.
Ivory Coast showed an example of this when the nation's soccer team (only sports team) made it to the World Cup. They stopped the violence because for the first time the country came together and enacted joyous nationalism. Its about working together as a nation and promoting an emphasis on similarities.
Armed Rebel Groups
Blood Diamonds
Money to supply arms
Corrupt Government
Gov't Institutions
Social Infrastructure
Credibility of Gov't
See prose
See prose
The original conflict began when Gbagbo's predecessor, Robert Guei, passed a law that requires both parents of a presidential candidate to be native to Ivory Coast. This law excluded Alassane Ouattara from the presidential race as well his numerous northern Muslim supporters. The new law left Gbagbo as the only remaining viable candidate. Gbagbo took power in 2000 and reigned as a dictator until 2010.
Throughout a series of electoral fraud and corruption, coups erupted and rebel groups fought in the streets over who should truly win the election.
Since the early 19th century, African slaves could be killed if they were even suspected of stealing diamonds.

It is said that 20% of the diamond trade went to finance the civil war and rebellions in Ivory Coast.

These rebellions were a product of corruption, Gbagbo's dictatorship and electoral fraud.
Gbagbo's ethnic exclusionary policies labeled the north as foreigners and the south as Ivorites. He instituted policies that lead to ethnic persecution and the divide of the country. This is when rebel groups formed in support of Gbagbo and his policies and rebels groups in support of his opposition (Gbagbo).
Competition for presidency
incumbent feels threatened
Ouattara's exclusion
of Gbagbo supporters
Gbagbo supporters feel
in danger of being targeted
take up arms to defend
themselves and support Gbagbo
Gbagbo attacks Ouattara
supporters in the north
North feels isolated
North's desire for vengeance
Obtains arms via
diamond trade revenue
Northern rebels initiate coup
and violence against Gbagbo's
dictatorship and ethnic
exclusionary policies
Gbagbo feels threatened,
desire for vengeance
Ivory Coast has benefited but also been plagued by the presence of vast diamond mines. Slaves have been brutally murdered and limbs have been cut off when there is suspicion of stealing diamonds. The rebels that control the northern diamond mines have used the diamond revenue to fuel civil war for well over a decade.

Diamonds have given Ivory Coast economic prosperity, but when the UN banned international diamond production from Ivory Coast, their economy slowly crumbled. Now, they are illegally exporting diamonds to neighboring countries and brutal human rights abuses have continued.

The proper development of this resource could provide great wealth for Ivory Coast. However, the revenue is concentrated into the hands of a small group of rebels who monopolize the collection of diamonds.
"Violence can also come about when minority groups in a resource-rich area feel excluded from political power... Sometimes, separatist groups try to claim ownership of the land where that resource originates"

The article furthers that this is how the conflicts are perpetuated. The resource is used to fuel the political agenda of those who are excluded from their government. Hence, when the northern rebels used the diamond revenue to support themselves during Gbagbo's ethnic exclusionary policies. These policies ultimately ended in the demise of his regime.
Reoccurring violence is happening in a pattern. Violence
is perpetuated by revenue from conflict diamonds. This revenue is used to combat electoral fraud and arm the rebel groups. The two rebels groups both support opposing leaders: Ouattara and Gbagbo. Gbagbo supporters are loyal to him because they compose of primarily Ivorites. The majority of the population is however, migrants from outside countries (Burkina Faso) and they support Ouattara.
Ouattara feels threatened and is exhibiting violence and killing Gbagbo supporters. Gbagbo similarly, tried to kill and suppress all the "foreigners" and Ouattara supporters.

Both these leaders are trying to limit protesting and rebellion so that they can ensure stability. Stability also warrants incumbency, a desire of all leaders.
This leads up back to conflict diamonds perpetuating violence. Ouattara supposedly used the revenue from the conflict diamonds to get into power and now he is using the money to maintain power and suppress Gbagbo supporters.
It is a pattern common when countries experience the resource curse. These resources are being used to fuel civil war. The civil war is being caused by election fraud and competition for power within the government. The country is divided in half, supporters of the old regime, against supporters of the new regime.
The issue is that civil war is being perpetuated by conflict diamonds and the diamond mines are being controlled by the rebel group that assisted Ouattara into power.
The diamond ban has not been lifted and the FNCI is still illegally exporting diamonds to neighboring countries. The rebel groups that support Gbagbo are plotting against the upcoming elections and continually use the slogan "Free Gbagbo".
Now, Ouattara is killing off Gbagbo supporters while simultaneously trying to seek international aid and lift the ban off the Ivorian diamond export trade.
Essentially, each leader is trying to violently suppress opposition and maintain stability, while the diamond trade funds these actions.
The inter-workings of this conflict heavily rely on the corrupt and money-hungry system in which the government operates. Additionally, the money-hungry manner in which the FNCI rebel groups act while controlling the diamond mines.
The government is controlling the system in which the patterns operate. The relationships that compose this system are government officials and rebel leaders. This highlights the corrupt politics within the system that want diamond revenue so that they can gain power.
The system includes: the government and the rebel groups.
The relationships that fuel this conflict include:

Guillaume Soro and his favorable relationship with Ouattara.

Ouattara's favorable relationship with the FNCI, who assisted him in getting into power. Ouattara's relationship with Soro is what helped the FNCI support Ouattara over Gbagbo.

Ouattara's relationship with France, who also assisted him in obtaining power.
Gbagbo's loyal relationship with the Ivorian Popular Front who continue to fight for Gbagbo's justice.

Pascal Affi's loyalty to leading the Ivorian Popular Front and fighting for justice for Gbagbo.
Ideally we would like to see more transparency within the government. That would eliminate the corruption that plagues the current Ivorian system. This power-hungry and corrupt FNCI rebel group and government is what hinders any peace process. Ouattara claims he is working towards peace but simultaneously is executing Gbagbo supporters. The governments of Ivory Coast need not suppress protesting but recognize it as a nature of democracy.
Macro-level Solutions
Micro-level Solutions
Gbagbo needs to accept that his claim to the presidential seat is over. The best viable option is to elect a presidential candidate that is neither Gbagbo or Ouattara. There needs to be a clean slate where the President and his cabinet are elected by free and fair elections. That way, Gbagbo supports and Ouattara supports will not have a reason to fight each other and perpetuate the civil war.
Although Ouattara prescribes himself to the Kimberly Process and desires for the international ban to be lifted, he is not doing anything to stop the FNCI from exporting blood diamonds illegally. Thus, Ouattara needs to take action and stop the illegal diamond production by the FNCI and its commanders. However, this is a hard decision for Ouattara when the FNCI and Guillaume Soro so eagerly assisted him into the presidential seat.

We propose that Ouattara let the FNCI run the diamond mines but have the mines be government regulated. Perhaps by giving FNCI commanders paid positions in the diamond mine industry. There needs to be salaries for the employees so that there is an incentive to stop fighting. The mines need to be nationalized so that the diamonds can be exported to the international market legally and in a fair manner.
Fighters on both sides committed atrocities, including the extrajudicial killings of thousands. Thus understanding that both sides helped write unwritable wrongs will help deescalate the conflict. The goal should be to focus on formidable truths behind what happened. Focus on being transparent, clear, and honest, which will help bring forward truths about what really happened.

Setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission would be the most viable way for helping the Ivory Coast's society to overcome the vast amount of atrocities that occurred during the brutal civil and after the contested election. The goal here would be to have legitimate and credible people organize the commission. For starters, having Ouattara publicly support the Truth and Reconciliation Commission will be a huge step forward in promoting peace between all warring parties.
Mercy highlights how the parties can move beyond the conflict by focusing on forgiving the other side. The goal here is to understand that atrocities were committed by both sides, and that the only way to have long lasting peace is by moving past these immense human rights violations. The only way to fully forgive the other side and move on from this conflict is to focus on acceptance, compassion, and support. To move past intractable conflict attributes by emphasizing the relationship between Muslims and Christians alike.

We would do this by implementing the Muslim-Christian Alliance Awareness Campaign, which would be utilized through the Charter for Compassion methods.
Charter for Compassion
Focuses on creating accountability by locating and punishing those responsible for war crimes. This must be done in order to restore the damages that have been done to the victims, and punishing those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity will help to restore the relationships within the Ivory Coast.

Ex-president Gbagbo has been arrested by the United Nations, and is currently awaiting trial. Meanwhile, Ouattara has charged over 150 pro-Gbagbo supporters with connections to the post-election violence. Ouattara has yet to prosecute a single pro-Ouattara supporter, which will only work to perpetuate the conflict even further.

We advise that a neutral third party should intervene and help with locating and punishing those responsible for human rights violations. This will assist in restoring relationships and creating transparency within a corrupt regime.
Peace is brought about by overcoming the vicious cycles of accusation, bitterness, and bloodshed. Establishing sustainable peace is a vital proponent to bring opposing communities together and will encourage greater respect and well-being. Peace harbors increased feelings of security, both individually and nationally.

We hope to achieve this by implementing a gun-buyback program. This program would be extremely beneficial for local communities, because it would exchange money for guns. Thus, disarming the rebel groups and promoting peace and stability.

Ouattara has already begun implementing a similar program called the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR). This program is only aimed at the FNCI, which is why we believe a gun-buyback program is necessary because it will encompass all rebel groups/those who are armed.
led by ex-Prime Minister Soro
Supported Ouattara during
overthrow of Gbagbo
Favorable policies
that protect FNCI
In process of being
integrated into the
national military
Increased national presence
most powerful
Ivorian Popular Front
led by Pascal Affi N'Guessan
Supported Gbagbo's
run for presidency
In return, Pascal was
made Prime Minister
After Gbagbo's arrest,
the group disintegrated
less power
Government and rebel officials need to learn to have compassion for different religions and change their ethnocentric outlook. Need for respect among all members of the system. Need to accept others who have differing perspectives, it is fundamental to democracy. Each person needs to be willing to actively listen and also be willing to make the change in themselves before they can see nation-wide change.
Need for a more encompassing
community that can respect
different religions and accept
people for their different ethnic
origins. This should be done by
community and religious leaders.
They can lead by example and show
the country a path towards acceptance and non-violence.
There needs to be a movement away from this violent culture that has plagued Ivory Coast during the past decade of civil war.
Structural changes need to come from the top-down. Therefore, there needs to be a change within the government that will create more transparency and warrant free and fair elections. As mentioned earlier, this might be achieved through having a caucus which is proportionally representative of the national population. This will alleviate the ethnic persecution that has haunted Ivory Coast. Additionally, perhaps free and fair elections need to be administered by an international third party before Ivory Coast can conduct an election independently.
Focus on similarities
between opposing parties
so that we can look past
differences in order to
achieve peace and
reconciliation. Create an
alliance between Muslims
and Christians. As
mentioned before, perhaps
bringing people to a common
space such as a national
sports league. This will help
to create bonds among
unlikely communities.
Civil war, controversial election, illegal diamond
trade, ethnocentrism
Vicious cycle of violence and ethnocentrism which
has led to minimal trust between the government
and the people. There is bitterness and rampant bloodshed by rebel groups and government officials. This simply perpetuates the conflict and hinders all possibilities for peaceful solutions.
& preventative measures
By Alexandra Rapazzini and Landon Shumaker
Full transcript