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Transcript of Grains
Grains = the edible seeds of certain grasses
Grains are a staple of the world's diet.
There are a variety of types that heartily grow
around the world, keep well for storage,
have high energy values, and are very inexpensive.
Main Grains and their Uses:
Wheat: flour, cereals, pasta
Corn: as a veggie, cereals, grits, hominy
Rice: cereals, as rice
Oats: cereals, baked products
Other: quinoa, couscous
Three parts of a grain kernel:
Bran - outer edible covering of the kernel; made of cellulose not digestible - cleanses intestines as it passes
Endosperm - inner white portion of kernel, made only of carbohydrates and protein, no vitamins/minerals
Germ - at the end of kernel, sprouting part and food supply to support a new plant, contains vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fat, and protein
So what is all the discussion about processed grains versus whole grains!?!
Whole grains: the entire kernel and therefore all the nutrition a grain has to offer
1. Brown rice: whole grain form of rice, boils 30 - 40 minutes
2. Long grain rice: stays dry and fluffy
3. Wild rice: grows in aquatic areas
4. White rice: water to rice ratio is 2:1, bring water to boil, add rice
and stir in, turn to low and put lid on - no stirring. Cook ~20 minutes until water is absorbed. Let rest and then fluff with fork.
5. Instant rice: precooked and dehydrated, cooks in half the time
Basic recipe to make fresh pasta = flour + salt + egg *
Low cost, easy prep, great way to stretch a dish
Basic cooking technique:
bring water to boil, add pasta, cook all dente, drain, and ONLY rinse if using for a cold dish like pasta salad or if you aren't using it right away. *
Now that you have your notes on grains,
use them and the presentation to complete the true/false(last slide), cooking with Chris (next slide) , and cereal comparison activities.
Other grain cookery
Couscous: grain originating in North Africa, bring water/broth to boil, add couscous, take off heat and let sit 10 minutes until water/broth is absorbed
Bulgur: cooks faster than rice (1/2 time) and does not have to be simmering the whole time, can just steep
You are the host of a 30-minute weekly television show called “Cooking with Chris”.
After an episode called “Great Grains”, you have received the following emails from viewers. How would you respond?
Record your responses on your note sheet.
No matter how much I stir, my rice always turns out sticky. What can I do? (from sticky)
I decided to serve bulgur for a change of pace. I did exactly what I do when I cook rice, but the grain came out like mush. Any thoughts? (from mushy)
I have a problem when I fix spaghetti. I rinse the cooked pasta under running water the way you're suppose to, but it always gets cold. Is there a better way? (from noodles)
I want to eat more whole grains and get confused by all the different types of bread. How do I know which really have whole grains? (from grainy)
True or False: Record your T or F response on your paper
1. Grains are the most important staple in the world food supply.
2. Grains are the stems of plants in the grass family.
3. The germ is a tiny seed that will grow into a new plant.
4. The outer, edible protective coat found on a seed of grain is the endosperm.
5. The bran is the food supply for the plant.
6. Carbohydrates are found in the germ of grains.
7. During processing of grains, the outer bran is removed to leave the germ.
8. The entire kernel is used in enriched grain products.
9. Grain products are often fortified with iron.
10. Long grain rice tends to be very moist and sticky when cooked.
11. The whole grain form of rice is brown rice.
12. Couscous is a popular grain in Asia.
13. Wild rice is the seed of a water grass.
14. The coarsely ground endosperm of corn is called bulgar.
15. Triticale is a cross between wheat and rye.
16. Ground bran cereals are high in fiber content.
17. Wheat germ is added to other foods for more nutritional value.
18. Pasta is dough made from flour and water.
19. Pita bread is a type of leavened bread.
20. Cooked grains should be placed in the refrigerator for long-term storage.
Triticale: cross between wheat and rye
FORTIFIED (new nutrients added, ex. iron).
ENRICHED (naturally occurring nutrients put back in) &
Because of this processing which strips grains of essential nutrients, the endosperm is then...
PROCESSING a grain strips the kernel of the bran and germ and only leaves the endosperm = carbs & protein.