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Santa Maria volcano eruption of 902
Transcript of Santa Maria volcano eruption of 902
In October 1902, The Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala erupted. The eruption lasted 19 days and produced 1.3 of dacite pyroclastic debris. Before the eruption, there was many earthquakes. It is thought that the earthquakes had something to do with the eruption.
The climate before the eruption was warm and rainy.Several earthquakes occurred prior to the eruption, with the last one being a week before. After this earthquake the sky cleared up and the rain stopped. It was thought that the earthquake some how was connected to an electrical disturbance in the atmosphere.
The average temperature dropped following the Santa Maria volcano eruption as the gas and dust particles that were thrown into the atmosphere blocked the sunlight.
Over 5,000 people died due to the direct effects of the eruption. Several thousand more people died from the malaria epidemic that followed the eruption. Over 100 homes were destroyed and the damages cost between 1 and 5 million dollars.
During the eruption, lethal gases were emitted into the atmosphere. Also, ash and smoke went into the atmosphere causing ash fall.
Plants over a wide area were destroyed during the eruption. However, volcanic soil is very rich so once things cooled off, plants were able to make a comeback.
Santa Maria volcano eruption of
Animals were killed by lava flows, atmospheric effects, and gases. Aquatic life was damaged or killed by an increase in acidity in the water, change in temperature, and change in food supply. The eruption killed most of the birds that lived in the area. The absence in the birds resulted in an increase in the mosquito population. This led to the outbreak of malaria.
The Santa Maria eruption of 1902 lasted for 19 days. It was active for many months following the large eruption, than it became dormant again. However, since 1922, there has been almost continuous minor explosions, periodic lava extrusions, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. These activities have caused light ashfall in areas to the southwest. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse. Also the flow of debris in rivers south of Santiaguito, has led to flooding and mud flows.
The Santa Maria eruption blew ash debris into the stratosphere. This weakened the Sun’s direct rays by 5-20 percent which caused the average global temperature to be colder by 0.1-0.2 degrees celsius.
Elevation is 12,375 ft
Volcano type: Stratovolcano
Location: Southwestern Guatemala
The eruption formed a large crater in the southwestern part of the volcano.
One of the biggest eruptions of the 20th century.
The 9th deadliest and the 4th most powerful eruption in historical times.
Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6 (measure of the volume of erupted material)