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Geological & Biological Timeline of the Earth

Science
by

Thomas Coote

on 3 December 2012

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Transcript of Geological & Biological Timeline of the Earth

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Geological & Biological
Timeline of the Earth Hadeon Era This Era was a time of great transformation as our solar system fromed and the moon formed because of fragments from a collision earth had with a planetoid. There is no geological record for the Hadean Eon. Archean Era The surface of the earth at this time had changed from molten to solid and water strated to condense into liquid form. Atmosphere made of 75% nitrogen and 15% carbon dioxide, oldest record of the Earth's magnetic field. Proterozoic Era Siderian Period First stable continenets formed and the first free oxygen found in the ocean and the atmosphere, it was also the start of the Huronian ice age. Rhyacian Period Organisms with mitochondria capable of aerobic respiration appear and it was the end of the Huronian ice age. Orosirian Period Intensive mountain developement and two huge meteor strikes occured during this period. The first was 2030 MYA and created a crater 300 Km across in Vredeoft, South Africa. The second occured 1850 MYA creating a 250 Km crater in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Cryogenian Period 850-630 MYA Tonian Period 1000-850 MYA Calymmian Period Photosynthetic organisms proliferated and the oxygen in the atmosphere grew to 10%, the ozone layer also started to form and block ultra violent rays hitting earth Stathern Period Complex single-celled life appeared on the hostile surface of the earth and there was an abundance of bacteria and archeans by then. Ectasian Period Green (Chlorobionta) and red (Rhodophyta) algae are bound Stenian Period Spore/gamete formation indicates the origin of sexual reproduction and the super continent Rodinia Neoproterozoic Era 1000-542 MYA Ediacaran Period 630-542 MYA Mesoproterozoic Era Paleozoic Era 542-251 MYA Cambrian Period 542-488.3 MYA Ordovician Period 488.3-443.7 MYA Silurian Period 443.7-416 MYA Devonian Period 416-359.2 MYA Carboniferous Period 359.2-299 MYA Mesozoic Era 251-65.5 MYA Triassic Period 251-199.6 MYA Neogene Period 23.03 MYA-Present Teritary Period 65.5-23.03 MYA Cenozoic Era 65.5 MYA-Present Cretaceous Period 145.5-65.5 MYA Jurassic Period 199.6-145.5 MYA 2500-2300 MYA 2300-2050 MYA 2500-1600 MYA 3800-2500 MYA 4567-3800 MYA 2050-1800 MYA 1800-1600 MYA 1600-1000 MYA 1600-1400 MYA 1400-1200 MYA 1200-1000 MYA Multicellular organisms and the start of the Stuartian-Varangian Ice age all occured under the new 18 hour long day. The break up of super continent Rodinia started the formation of the supper continent Pannotia and with it came a mass extinction of 70% dominant sea plants becasue of global glaciation. Earth has a 20.7 hour long day now and soft bodied organisms like Jellyfish, Tribrachidium and Dickinsonia appeared in earths oceans. While all this happened Pannotia broke up into Laurasia and Gondwana. It was also the end of the Stuartian-Varangian ice age. There is a huge abundance of multicellular life and most of the major groups of animals first appeared There are a diverse amount of marine invertebrae and the arrival of the vertebrates in the oceans but many perished as Gondwana suffered glaciation because of the Andean-Saharan Ice age. It was the end of the Andean-Saharan ice age and the stabilization of the earths atmosphere that made it possible for the first jawed vertebrae to patrol the ocean, the shark. But the shark wasn't the only highly evolved creature as insects started to roam the the greenery that formed on the land Ferns and forests shot up as the earths days got to 21.8 hours long. Wingless insects and vertabraes with legs started to appear. But there was another mass extinction as the globe cooled from 34 degrees to 26 over a span of 29 million years Lower Carboniferous It was the beginning of the Karoo ice age as the large primitive trees began to cover the earth as did ferns and many more species of greenery. Winged insects buzzed around the forests and vertebrae crawled along the ground. Carboniferous Period 359.2-299 MYA Upper Carboniferous As the first reptiles roamed the forests and the oxygen levels got above 30%, giant arthropods populated the land. Coal deposites start to form in Europe, Asia and North America. The land began to populate as the super continent Pangea broke apart and it was the time of the reptiles. The first dinosaurs roamed the forests and the reptile also ruled the seas with the ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. But the emergence of another species known as mammals started to appear. The air was warm in this period as their was no ice caps, but it was the time of the dinosaurs, giant herbivores and vicious carnivores roamed all the land. But the land was splitting and evolution was kicking in. Active crust movement kicked in as flowering plants grew and many modern animals started to evolve and global warming started to take affect. huge volcanic eruptions began in India spewing lava and gasses. Then it struck a meteor hit off the coast of what was to be Mexico causing mass extinction of 80-90% of marine species and 85% of land species including the dinosaurs Plancental Mammals began to roam the new forest full of flowers as the Rockies formed as well as the Himalayas. Australia separated from the antarctic and the days steadied at 24 hours. More modern animals evolved like camels and rhinos. Grasses spread and elephants with trunks speckled the plains. Quaternary Period 2.58 MYA-Present As the Arctic ice cap formed.The first upright walking hominids appeared on the face of the earth. The globe got warmer and the ice began to build on top of itself at the poles and long legged grazing animals fed on the grasslands. Tool-making humanoids emerge as it was the beginning of the Stone Age, Homo erectus started to migrate to new land and large land mammals and birds grazed and flew over the forests and grasslands. The use of fire by Hominids and hunting with spears and stone tools all came to in this period. Australia became arid and megafuana die out, a land bridge allowed early humans to migrate to America as a result fire pottery came to be. Quaternary Period 2.58 MYA-Present Tool-making humanoids emerge as it was the beginning of the Stone Age, Homo erectus started to migrate to new land and large land mammals and birds grazed and flew over the forests and grasslands. The use of fire by Hominids and hunting with spears and stone tools all came to in this period. Australia became arid and megafuana die out, a land bridge allowed early humans to migrate to America as a result fire pottery came to be. Holocene Epoch 11,400 YA-Today The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals was the first indication of intelligent life and it improved they started smelting metal and soon came the invention of the wheel followed by the Bronze Age and the development of early text. The great Pyramids of Giza were constructed and so began the Iron Age. One of the greatest minds, Archimedes advanced the understanding of mathematics, then Industrial Revolution was upon them and the space race began resulting in the first man to step on the moon
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