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Secondary machining

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Andy Sadd

on 7 October 2015

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Transcript of Secondary machining


Primary
Forming
Casting
Forming
Powder Metallurgy
Forging
Extruding and
Moulding
.
Secondary Machining
Question:-
What machine is used for turning?
How is the work held?

Answer
lathe and chuck
Milling
Boring
TURNING
Conventional Methods
Secondary Machining
The maufacturing process can be broadly divided into two groups primary manufacturing and secondary manufacturing. A secondary machining process is where raw material or a component is taken for further working, usually involving material removal, and is carried out after a primary forming
process.
INTRODUCTION
SECONDARY
MACHINING
SECONDARY MACHINING PROVIDES THE FINAL SHAPE
WITH TIGHTER CONTROLS OVER SIZE SHAPE AND SURFACE FINISH
Conventional Machining
Turning
Boring
Milling
Shaping
Grinding
Pressing
Non conventional
machining
Broaching
Honing/lapping
EDM(electro discharge
machining)
LASER
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20jWcKQB3Ys
 
www.quicksilvermint.com/Custom-Stamps-and-Dies-Web.pdf

BROACHING
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufmPPcHvY5w
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZpWcl1BKVk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AB_ethttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuT6mrAMOxEoHesI

HONING AND LAPPING
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAfdq217CJI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzfVBj_a4ag
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ec4sP9f-RfY
http://americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/cutting-tool-applications-chapter-18-lapping-and-honing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWs2lneWV-I
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYV-3hJq_JA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6togIVqC4M

As shown in Figure 1, at the beginning of EDM operation, a high voltage is applied across the narrow gap between the electrode and the work piece. This high voltage induces an electric field in the insulating dielectric that is present in a narrow gap between electrode and workpiece. This cause conducting particles suspended in the dielectric to concentrate at the points of strongest electrical field. When the potential difference between the electrode and the workpiece is sufficiently high, the dielectric breaks down and a transient spark discharges through the dielectric fluid, removing small amount of material from the workpiece surface. The volume of the material removed per spark discharge is typically in the range of 10-6 to 10-6 mm3.

Working principle of EDM

Figure 1: Electrical discharge machine
 
The traditional machining processes rely on a tool or abrasive material which is harder than the material being machined, to remove the softer,(component), material, whereas non-traditional machining processes such as EDM uses electrical sparks or thermal energy to erode unwanted, excess material in order to create a desired shape. So, the hardness of the material is no longer a dominating factor. A schematic of an EDM process is shown in Figure 2, where the tool and the workpiece are immersed in a dielectric fluid.

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes. The main attraction of EDM over traditional machining processes such as metal cutting using different cutting tools and grinding, is that this technique utilises a thermoelectric process to erode,(remove), excess material from the work piece by a series of discrete electrical sparks, generated between the work piece and the electrode. A picture of EDM machine in operation is shown in Figure 1.

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)

Introduction
Non-traditional manufacturing processes is defined as a group of processes that remove excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical energy or combinations of these energies but do not use a sharp cutting tools as need to be used for traditional manufacturing processes.


Extremely hard and brittle materials are difficult to machine by traditional machining processes such as turning, drilling, shaping and milling.

Non traditional machining processes, also called advanced manufacturing processes, are employed where traditional machining processes are not feasible, satisfactory or economical due to special reasons as outlined below.

Non Traditional Machining Processes

Lapping is an abrasive finishing process, lapping is used to create extremely flat and smooth surfaces. In some cases, lapping can remove marks left by other finishing processes, such as grinding. Lapping begins with a soft material, such as lead, cast iron, cloth or copper, containing embedded abrasives. This material, known as a lap, is rubbed against the surface to be lapped (or vice versa). In hand lapping, the material is moved in a figure-eight pattern over the lap.

Due to the nature of the lap and abrasive, the embedded abrasives perform the actual finishing, while the lap simply provides a bed for the abrasives. This allows the abrasives to cut away very fine amounts of the material while the lap remains intact. The process removes an extremely fine layer of material, typically gauged in Helium Light Bands (HLB), which are a minute fraction of an inch, and uses abrasives ranging from fine powders to 120 grit.


Honing is an important final step in blade re sharpening, and is a microscopic polishing of the bevel edge of an already sharpened knife in order to remove any remaining imperfections. The honing not only improves the performance of cutting edge but it also increases the knife durability.
Honing is also used to finish the bores in cylinders, such as in an engine block. Honing provides a dimensionally accurate size and ensures geometric cylindricity.

The EDM process has the ability to machine hard, difficult-to-machine materials. Components with complex, precise or irregular shapes, e.g. for forging, press tools, extrusion dies and components with complex internal profiles as may be found in the aerospace and medical applications can be made by EDM process. Some of the complex shapes made by EDM process are shown below. Imagine how difficult it would be to produce these items using conventional machining

Several types of non-traditional machining processes have been developed to meet the demands and challenges presented when machining operations are required to generate a form or product using materials such as those previously described.

When these processes are employed properly, they offer many advantages over traditional machining processes. The common non-traditional machining processes are described in this section.

When the shape of the part is too complex

When the work piece is too flexible or slender

Very hard fragile materials difficult to clamp for traditional machining

and “Non-Traditional Manufacturing Processes”.

they are “Conventional Machining Processes”

Material removal processes once again can be divided into mainly two groups

Secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size ( of a component) with tighter control on dimensions, surface characteristics and finish etc. These secondary finishing techniques provide the final shape, size and finish for a component, they “add value to the raw material” by removing excess material resulting in a finished component with enhanced value.

BROACHING
The use of a multi-point cutting tool to shape and finish either the interior of a hole or the surface of a work piece
BROACH
A multi-point cutting tool with a series of progressively changing teeth that can both remove metal and finish the surface of a work piece in one pass.

Complex internal shapes can be machined

One of the main advantages of this process is that thin and fragile/brittle components can be machined without distortion;

No burrs are left in machined surface;

By this process, materials of any hardness can be machined;

The main advantages of EDM are:

Advantages of EDM

VERTICAL BORING

MILLING MACHINE

CENTERLESS GRINDING

CONVENTIONAL SECONDARY MACHINING PROCESSES

SURFACE GRINDING

LATHE (TURNING)

FORMING

CASTING

The heating and pressing of powdered metal to create a solid shape. Sintered metals create very uniform contents.

Primary processes provide the basic shape and size to the material as per designer’s requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are such processes to name a few.

Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups, they are primary manufacturing processes and secondary manufacturing processes.

LASER

 
www.quicksilvermint.com/Custom-Stamps-and-Dies-Web.pdf
BROACHING
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufmPPcHvY5w
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZpWcl1BKVk
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AB_ethttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BuT6mrAMOxEoHesI

HONING AND LAPPING
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAfdq217CJI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzfVBj_a4ag
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ec4sP9f-RfY
http://americanmachinist.com/machining-cutting/cutting-tool-applications-chapter-18-lapping-and-honing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWs2lneWV-I
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYV-3hJq_JA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6togIVqC4M

As shown in Figure 1, at the beginning of EDM operation, a high voltage is applied across the narrow gap between the electrode and the work piece. This high voltage induces an electric field in the insulating dielectric that is present in a narrow gap between electrode and workpiece. This cause conducting particles suspended in the dielectric to concentrate at the points of strongest electrical field. When the potential difference between the electrode and the workpiece is sufficiently high, the dielectric breaks down and a transient spark discharges through the dielectric fluid, removing small amount of material from the workpiece surface. The volume of the material removed per spark discharge is typically in the range of 10-6 to 10-6 mm3.

Working principle of EDM

Figure 1: Electrical discharge machine
 
The traditional machining processes rely on a tool or abrasive material which is harder than the material being machined, to remove the softer,(component), material, whereas non-traditional machining processes such as EDM uses electrical sparks or thermal energy to erode unwanted, excess material in order to create a desired shape. So, the hardness of the material is no longer a dominating factor. A schematic of an EDM process is shown in Figure 2, where the tool and the workpiece are immersed in a dielectric fluid.

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes. The main attraction of EDM over traditional machining processes such as metal cutting using different cutting tools and grinding, is that this technique utilises a thermoelectric process to erode,(remove), excess material from the work piece by a series of discrete electrical sparks, generated between the work piece and the electrode. A picture of EDM machine in operation is shown in Figure 1.

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)

Introduction
Non-traditional manufacturing processes is defined as a group of processes that remove excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical energy or combinations of these energies but do not use a sharp cutting tools as need to be used for traditional manufacturing processes.


Extremely hard and brittle materials are difficult to machine by traditional machining processes such as turning, drilling, shaping and milling.

Non traditional machining processes, also called advanced manufacturing processes, are employed where traditional machining processes are not feasible, satisfactory or economical due to special reasons as outlined below.

Non Traditional Machining Processes

UNIT 21

TRADITIONAL AND NON TRADITIONAL MACHINING TECHNIQUES

BROACHING
The use of a multi-point cutting tool to shape and finish either the interior of a hole or the surface of a work piece
BROACH
A multi-point cutting tool with a series of progressively changing teeth that can both remove metal and finish the surface of a work piece in one pass.

Lapping is an abrasive finishing process, lapping is used to create extremely flat and smooth surfaces. In some cases, lapping can remove marks left by other finishing processes, such as grinding. Lapping begins with a soft material, such as lead, cast iron, cloth or copper, containing embedded abrasives. This material, known as a lap, is rubbed against the surface to be lapped (or vice versa). In hand lapping, the material is moved in a figure-eight pattern over the lap.

Due to the nature of the lap and abrasive, the embedded abrasives perform the actual finishing, while the lap simply provides a bed for the abrasives. This allows the abrasives to cut away very fine amounts of the material while the lap remains intact. The process removes an extremely fine layer of material, typically gauged in Helium Light Bands (HLB), which are a minute fraction of an inch, and uses abrasives ranging from fine powders to 120 grit.


Honing is an important final step in blade re sharpening, and is a microscopic polishing of the bevel edge of an already sharpened knife in order to remove any remaining imperfections. The honing not only improves the performance of cutting edge but it also increases the knife durability.
Honing is also used to finish the bores in cylinders, such as in an engine block. Honing provides a dimensionally accurate size and ensures geometric cylindricity.

The EDM process has the ability to machine hard, difficult-to-machine materials. Components with complex, precise or irregular shapes, e.g. for forging, press tools, extrusion dies and components with complex internal profiles as may be found in the aerospace and medical applications can be made by EDM process. Some of the complex shapes made by EDM process are shown below. Imagine how difficult it would be to produce these items using conventional machining

VERTICAL BORING

MILLING MACHINE

CENTERLESS GRINDING

CONVENTIONAL SECONDARY MACHINING PROCESSES

SURFACE GRINDING

LATHE (TURNING)

Complex internal shapes can be machined

One of the main advantages of this process is that thin and fragile/brittle components can be machined without distortion;

No burrs are left in machined surface;

By this process, materials of any hardness can be machined;

The main advantages of EDM are:

Advantages of EDM

Several types of non-traditional machining processes have been developed to meet the demands and challenges presented when machining operations are required to generate a form or product using materials such as those previously described.

When these processes are employed properly, they offer many advantages over traditional machining processes. The common non-traditional machining processes are described in this section.

When the shape of the part is too complex

When the work piece is too flexible or slender

Very hard fragile materials difficult to clamp for traditional machining

and “Non-Traditional Manufacturing Processes”.

they are “Conventional Machining Processes”

Material removal processes once again can be divided into mainly two groups

Secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size ( of a component) with tighter control on dimensions, surface characteristics and finish etc. These secondary finishing techniques provide the final shape, size and finish for a component, they “add value to the raw material” by removing excess material resulting in a finished component with enhanced value.

FORMING

CASTING

The heating and pressing of powdered metal to create a solid shape. Sintered metals create very uniform contents.

Primary processes provide the basic shape and size to the material as per designer’s requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are such processes to name a few.

Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups, they are primary manufacturing processes and secondary manufacturing processes.

Lathe
Vertical
Surface Grinder
Centerless Grinder
Fly Press
Hydraulic Press
Kinematics
Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion".
Kinematic of a Lathe
We start at the output of the electric motor. There's a pulley on the output shaft that is connected to the input shaft of the lathe with a set of vee belts. The input shaft drives the gear box through a number of speeds change gears . The output from the gear box rotates the chuck also the rack and pinion that drives the cutting tool laterally
Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion".[
kinematic of a milling machine
The kinematic of a milling machine is similar to a lathe however on a miller the tool rotates and the bed moves the piece of work laterally.
Outcomes
Explain five different secondary machining techniques.
Know what kinematics means,
Explain kinematic in Secondary Machining

Health and Safety
Considerations
Full transcript