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Homer & The Trojan War
Transcript of Homer & The Trojan War
Homer & The Trojan War
Overview of the Bronze Age World
-The Bronze Age was the period in world history when bronze began to gradually replace stone and copper in the making of tools and weapons
-The date of the Bronze Age varies in different parts of the world
-The Greek Bronze Age spans a period of almost 2000 years between 3000 and 1100BC. The Age can further be divided into the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age
-The use of bronze as the main material for tools and weapons gave rise to important political, economic and social change. There was also the development of extensive trading networks between main centres of the Aegean and Mediterranean regions.
-The earliest development in Bronze Age civilization can be traced to the islands of the Cyclades located between Crete and mainland Greece.
Cultural & Geographical Background
Homer & The Epic Cycle
The Discovery & Excavation of Troy
Schliemann's Excavations at Mycenae
There is very little evidence for the Trojan War. The main source is Homer’s Iliad. Some of the issues of evidence associated with this source include the date when it was supposedly written (some 400 years after the events it describes) and the fact that it is an epic poem, not a historical account.
It is clear that the world described by Homer is closer to the archaic period in which he lived. The Archaic period followed the collapse of Mycenaean civilization. However, scholars who have studied Homer’s work have found in it many allusions to the world of the Mycenaean Bronze Age.
Other written sources mention the Trojan War but are even more remote in time from the war than Homer. Eg Thucydides writing his History of the Peloponnese War in the late 5th century BC certainly regarded the war as having occurred.
The Greek playwrights of his time such as Euripides and Sophocles also used the tales from the Trojan War epic cycle as the grand themes of many of the tragedies. Some of these plays include The Trojan Women, Agamemnon, Helen, Andromache, Hecuba, Iphigenia in Aulis and Ajax.
With no evidence apart from Homer and the bardic traditions, it seems obvious that by the Classical Period, the Trojan War had passed into legend and had become part of the Greek cultural tradition. We could compare this with the legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood in the Western tradition.
Role of Written Evidence
Role & Status of Women
Function of Myth
According to ancient Greek myths, the Trojan War resulted from an incident at the Wedding Feast of Peleus (the King of Thessaly) and Thetis (a sea goddess). All the deities (i.e. gods and goddesses) of Mount Olympus had been invited except for Eris (god of discord). Eris was offended and tried to stir up trouble among the guests at the feast. He sent a golden apple inscribed “for the most beautiful”. Three goddesses Hera, Athena and Aphrodite each claimed the apple and a quarrel began. Paris, the son of King Priam of Troy, judged the dispute. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite because she had promised him Helen (“the most beautiful woman in the world”). Helen was already married to King Menelaus of Sparta. But when Paris visited her , Helen fled with him to Troy. Menelaus and his brother Agamemnon organised a large Greek expedition against Troy to win Helen back. The Greek army included such heroes as Achilles, Nestor and Odysseus (Ulysses, in Latin).
The People of the Trojan War
Social , Economic & Political Structures
Kingship - An idealized form of monarchic government in which the king is an exceptional individual who governs with everyone's best interests in mind. Aristotle acknowledges that finding such an outstanding leader is difficult, but prizes the possibility nonetheless.
Oligarchy - Aristotle uses oligarchy, literally "the rule of the few," to refer to a government controlled by a minority consisting of the wealthy. Unlike aristocracy, Aristotle believes, oligarchy is a bad form of government, as the ruling faction governs solely in its own interests, disregarding those of the poor.
Tyranny - The rule of an individual interested solely in his own benefit. A perverse form of kingship, tyranny is unpopular and usually overthrown. In Aristotle's opinion, it is the worst type of government.
“The Women of Troy” Euripides
One of the most powerful and moving Greek tragedies written by Euripides is ‘The Trojan Women’. It is told from the perspective of the women of Troy and tells us what happened to them after the destruction of their city.
Although the play is set in the time of the Trojan War, it gives a universal and timeless message about the victims of war and the suffering it causes. In Euripides’ own 5th century, the play was performed in the aftermath of the Athenian destruction of the island of Melos in 415BC during the Peloponnesian Was. The Athenians, having conquered the island, put to death all the men and they sold all of the women and children into slavery.(Insert excerpts from the play to add depth)
It is often considered one of Euripides’ greatest works, and among the best anti-war plays ever written.
Thucydides,the Greek historian writing hundreds of years later in the 5th century BC, rejects the mythological story that Helen's father had made all her suitors promise to bring her back if she should ever be stolen. Thucydides main interest lay in tracing the development of Athens' naval empire in the Aegean (in hisown day) and he argued that the Trojan war may have been the result of a desire by Mycenae, the most important city of its time, to extend its power
Homer's Iliad & Poetry as an historical source (Class Discussion)
Schliemann - father of archeology or fraud?
Location of Schliemann's (Priam's) treasure
Legacy of the Trojan War for classical Greek society
For the Greeks of the classical period and beyond, the Trojan War was a favourite narrative of great men and
their deeds. It was also a popular subject for ancient artists, including vase painters and sculptors.
The Athenian tragedians of the 5th century featured exploits and themes of the Trojan War in their plays. Many of these plays are still performed today in the remain of the ancient theatres where they were first performed two and half thousand years ago.
The Trojan War provided powerful inspiration for both personal values and national identity. Greek youths were reared in the Homeric tradition. An important part of their education was learning to recite ling passages of homer by heart. Greek soldiers marched into battle to emulate the great deeds of warrior heroes such as Achilles, Hector and Ajax
-The first civilisation to settle in the Aegean
-The period of Minoan greatness lasted from about 2000 – 1500 BC
-The Minoan civilisation was named after the legendary King Minos, and was based on Crete
-The conquerors of Crete, the Mycenaeans, were part of the Indo-European peoples who had migrated into Greece, probably towards the end of the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 BC). About 1600 BC, under the influence of the Minoans, they began to develop their own civilisation centred at the settlements of Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos. This civilisation was first revealed by the excavation of Heinrich Schliemann.
-The Mycenaeans were mostly warrior folk and were the inspiration of most of the epic writings of Homer-The Linear B clay tablets found at Mycenaean sites indicated the social structure of Mycenaean society. (Linear B was deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1953). At the apex was the King (Lanex) and under him nobles and warrior chiefs, followed by the rest of the population: labourers and slaves.
-Archaeological evidence suggests that the Mycenaeans were warlike, as their settlements were usually huge fortresses strategically located on high places.
The Dorian Invasions
-The arrival of the Dorians completed the destruction of the Mycenaean World with only a few outposts (such as Athens) surviving the conquest.
-Trade, industry, agriculture and architecture declined dramatically and such forms as writing completely disappeared
-Many of the Mycenaean Greeks fled their homes. Some moved to Achaea in the northern Peloponnese, others to the islands of the Aegean and yet others to Asia Minor and Ionia.
It was not until the 18th Century that any serious scholarly attempt was made to find the actual site. In 1865, Frank Calvert, a British archaeologist, sank trial trenches into a mound known as Hissarlik or 'the place of the port'. This was situated in the Troad area in north-western Asia Minor. Calvert realised that the mound at Hassarlik promised much for the excavator who had the resources to carry out such an investigation. He was convinced that Hissarlik was the site of the ancient city of Troy
Controversy has plagued Schliemann's discovery of Troy. He had identified seven cities and believed that Troy II was he Troy described by Homer in the Illiad. Wilhelm Dorpfeld, the next archaeologist after Schliemann to work at Troy, identified two more cities, one superimposed on another. Since that time, archaeological excavation has revealed approximately 40 different levels of occupation at the site. Dorpfeld identified Troy VI as the Troy of the Trojan War, for he found wide streets, large houses, defensive walls and watch towers
Carl Blegen excavated the site after Schliemann and Dorpfeld. Blegen dug in areas that were untouched so far and sampled all phases of the site's history. He was able to establish a more scientific sequence of buildings and arterfacts. He identified Troy VIIa as the 'real' Troy of Homer. Scholars continue to disagree. Troy VI fits the description of Homer but Blegen proved that its walls were destroyed not by warfare but by an earthquake. Troy VIIa on the other hand, does not fit Homer's description. Its houses were poorly built and cramped but its walls were strong. The city appears to have been destroyed by fire after only 30 years it habitation
From 1988, the German Professor Manfred Korfmann of the University of Tubingen led the excavations at Troy. Working with a large team of international experts, Korfmann was able to use some of the very latest technology to reveal new areas of the site for excavation and study.
The next to arrive on the scene was the German amateur archaeologist and self made millionaire, Dr Heinrich Schliemann. Schliemann was fulfilling a childhood dream by journeying to Asia Minor in an attempt to discover the ancient city of Troy. With an unshakable faith in the literal truth of Homer’s account of the war in The Iliad, Schliemann set out, Homer in one hand and stopwatch in the other, pacing out distances in Troad, recognising scenes from the descriptions in Homer and dismissing sites that did not agree exactly with the text. That the topography and coastline had altered greatly did not matter. On the advice of Frank Calvert and because it agreed in many regards with Homer’s description, Schliemann began to dig at Hissarlik.
The name of Troy has been kept alive since ancient times in myths, legends and literature but the city itself had disappeared and its exact location was unknown. Many people did not believe in its existence at all. A complicating factor was that 3000 years had changed the topography of the area and the coastline dramatically.
Fired with enthusiasm after his Trojan triumph, and this time following Pausanias, an ancient Greek travel writer of the 1st century AD, Schliemann now decided to excavate Mycenae.
Mycenae, famously described by Homer as 'rich in gold', was the home of Agamemnon, the leader of the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War. Within the walls of the Mycenaean citadel, Schliemann discovered a circle of shaft graves. The graves contained 15 skeletons covered in gold.
Schliemann immediately announced 'O do not for a moment hesitate to proclaim that i have found here the sepulchres which...tradition attributes to the king of men, Agamemnon.'
Once again, Schliemann was wrong - the bodies belonged to a much earlier period of Greek history. The authenticity of the golden funeral mask which Schliemann discovered and claimed was a likeness of Agamemnon, has also been challenged by both archaeological and scientific evidence.
Although Schliemann had made mistakes, he had found evidence of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilisation that had existed c. 1600 to 1100 BC.
Some of the information in Homer had been authenticated by Schliemanns archaeological finds.
Homer had described bronze swords, chariots and boars' tusk helmets and great shields and Schliemann had actually found these things as either artefacts or depicted in frescoes.
However, there are very many discrepancies, inaccuracies and anachronisms in Homer's account. Historians today generally agree that Homer's account is a 'confused amalgam' of a period of time dating from c. 1600BC down to hs own time, c.800BC
Homer – Background Information
•He is the earliest and greatest of the Ionian poets. We do not know much about his birthplace. It is widely believed that he was born either in Chios or in Smyrna in the c8th BC. He spent most of his life in Smyrna.
•The famous poems (epic) of Homer – i.e. The Iliad and The Odyssey – were written in Ionian
•He was described as being blind according to some early Greek and Ionian documents. But this does not exactly explain how he wrote about the earth, the sea and nature as well.
The Iliad“…the Iliad was written not to glorify war…but to emphasise its tragic futility”taken from The Iliad by Homer. Penguin Classics: London, 1950, xviiiGeneral Points re: The Iliad•The Iliad (aka The Trojan War) has been attributed to the Greek Poet Homer (c.800 BC)•Both The Iliad and The Odyssey are referred to as ‘epic poems’•Definition of ‘epic poems’: “the continuous narrations of one or more heroes achievements”•The world of ‘epic’ comes from ‘epos’ meaning “spoken word”•Troy (aka Ilium) was an ancient city in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey)•The Iliad opens in the tenth year of the Trojan War•The poem’s introduction explains (to the reader) the breach between Agamemnon and Achilles over Briseis. This breach forms the catalyst for Achilles’ withdrawal from the war. Achilles eventually returns to the battle (see: Book XIX) when his squire and friend Patrolcus is killed by Hector only after Patroclus is wounded by Apollo (the archer god) and Euphorbus•The Iliad ends with the funeral rites of Hector (Prince of Troy)
The Iliad“…the Iliad was written not to glorify war…but to emphasise its tragic futility”taken from The Iliad by Homer. Penguin Classics: London, 1950, xviii
General Points re: The Iliad
•The Iliad (aka The Trojan War) has been attributed to the Greek Poet Homer (c.800 BC)
•Both The Iliad and The Odyssey are referred to as ‘epic poems’
•Definition of ‘epic poems’: “the continuous narrations of one or more heroes achievements”
•The world of ‘epic’ comes from ‘epos’ meaning “spoken word”
•Troy (aka Ilium) was an ancient city in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey)
•The Iliad opens in the tenth year of the Trojan War
•The poem’s introduction explains (to the reader) the breach between Agamemnon and Achilles over Briseis. This breach forms the catalyst for Achilles’ withdrawal from the war. Achilles eventually returns to the battle (see: Book XIX) when his squire and friend Patrolcus is killed by Hector only after Patroclus is wounded by Apollo (the archer god) and Euphorbus
•The Iliad ends with the funeral rites of Hector (Prince of Troy)
The Odyssey is Homer's epic of Odysseus' 10-year struggle to return home after the Trojan War. While Odysseus battles mystical creatures and faces the wrath of the gods, his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus stave off suitors vying for Penelope's hand and Ithaca's throne long enough for Odysseus to return. The Odyssey ends as Odysseus wins a contest to prove his identity, slaughters the suitors, and retakes the throne of Ithaca.
The Beginnings of the Trojan War
Achilles (son of Peleus and Thetis)
-> it is Patroclus’ death, which ‘motivated’ Achilles to re-enter the battle. Consequently, Achilles kills Hector; the murderer of his late and loyal friend)]
-Agamemnon (brother to Menlaus)
-Aias (or Telemonian Aias) aka Ajax
-Menelaus (husband to Helen)
-Patroclus (squire and close friend t
-Hector (son of Priam and Hecabe)
-Paris (brother to Hector and seducer of Helen)
-Ares (originally promised Hera and Athena that he would fight on the side of the Greeks, but then changed his mind)
For the ancient Greeks, the gods were real and played important - often decisive - role in their lives.
Although the gods were powerful and immortal, they also experienced the same moods, whims and passions as humans. In the Trojan War, many gods took sides in the conflict, helping - or hindering - in order to influence the outcome of events
The Mycenaeans used a written script know today as Linear B which they inscribed on clay tablets with a sharp stylus.The tablets date to the Mycenaean period (approx 1600-1200BC). They were kept in baskets in the palace archives and when the palaces burned in large-scale fires as a result of earthquakes or invasion, the tablets were baked in the fires and so were accidentally preserved.
The major palaces used Linear B mostly to record economic transactions. Some of the common items mentioned in the tablets include wool, sheep, wheat and barley that were often given to groups of religious people. The tablets from the Palace of Pylos located on the far west coast of the Greek mainland refer to groups of men ‘watching the coastline’. This may indicate the threat of invasion by sea. There are some names of early Greek deities, inventories of military equipment, including chariots, and deployment of troops. The tablets also record some valuable information about administration, including the titles of officials. However, the tablets reveal nothing about the history, ideas and feelings of the Mycenae people.
The earliest tablets were discovered by Sir Arthur Evans at the Palace of Knossos on Crete – a site that the Mycenaeans had taken over after the decline of the Minoan civilization. The script remained undeciphered until 1952 when a brilliant young architect, Michael Ventris, cracked the code and identified it as an early form of Greek.The Pylos archive may give some clues to events relating to the Trojan War. There is reference to a large group of slave women and their children at Pylos. It is generally assumed that these slaves were foreigners from different places on the coast of Asia Minor, perhaps even as far as Troy – who had been captured by Mycenaean raiding parties. Another Linear B reference to troop dispositions has been compared to Homer’s famous catalogue of ships in which the Greeks sailed to Troy. However, the evidence is indirect and inconclusive. The tablets do not contain any recognizable reference to Troy, or any of the personalities mentioned in Homers Iliad.
The Hittite Diplomatic Archive
The Hittites were a warlike and powerful civilization of Anatolia that existed at the same time (Late Bronze Age) as the Mycenaean civilization in mainland Greece.Their script, also preserved on clay tablets, was called cuneiform. Historians and philologists have spent many year trying to identify Hittite place names and locate them on maps of the region. J.D. Hawkins, professor of ancient Anatolian languages sums up what has so far been established about Troy and Mycenae from Hittite records.
You will be given a worksheet. Complete the questions relating to source 9.9
Individually or in groups, you are to choose a famous myth/legend in this period and investigate its features. You should submit an evaluation of different interpretations and how they embody Mycenaean culture.
Suggestions: Thesues, Scaean gates, Ajax vs Hector, Diomede vs Hector, funeral games of Patrocles, The Sirens, Odysseus and Polyphemus
It is recommended that you research 2 myths per group
The Treatment of Helen
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy was the most beautiful woman in the world. A daughter of the god Zeus, she is best known for the part she played in causing the Trojan War. She is perhaps the most inspired character in all literature, ancient or modern. It is interesting to suggest that a woman of such apparent beauty, yet a woman nonetheless, began a whole war, one which lasted for ten years, a battle over Helen herself.
She was the daughter of Leda, queen of Sparta, and Zeus. She was sister to Polydeuces (Pollux) and half-sister to Castor and Clytemnestra.
A goddess is a female deity. In some cultures goddesses are associated with Earth, motherhood, love, and the household. In other cultures, goddesses also rule over war, death, and destruction as well as healing. They can be figureheads of religions and can be accessed in modern times by religious statues.
In Greek mythology, these Greek goddesses frequently interact with mankind, sometimes benevolently, but often ruthlessly. The goddesses represent certain (ancient) female roles, including virgin and mother.
Generally, contemporary scholarship believes that the Iliad and the Odyssey have a consistency of style and outlook indicating that they are the work of one writer. That a man named Homer actually composed the Iliad and the Odyssey as an original and entirely individual composition as Virgil composed the Aeneid seems highly doubtful. Various time references and other irregularities in the poems suggest that parts of the poems were written in entirely different periods of Greek history.
However, the obvious structural complexity and thematic unity of the poems as well as their set metrical pattern of dactylic hexameter indicate a single author of great sophistication.
As with the great English epic, Beowulf, the Iliad and the Odyssey may have existed as oral tradition for some time and eventually were put into final, written form by a single poetic genius. The poet may have composed the epics himself, or he may have borrowed from the works of earlier bards.
Troy was also an important Aegean centre located at the entrance to the Hellespont (the modern Dardanelles).
Excavation at the site suggest that it flourished in the Late Bronze Age at the height of the Mycenaean period and had contacts with it Aegean neighbours as well as with the Hittite civilisation, an important power in the late Near East Bronze Age.
-Most inhabitants doubt that the Minoans had a military empire based on colonies, believing instead that their extensive influence was based on trade. Their influence is often called “thalassocracy” as it was based on sea power-The Minoans were the most powerful people in the Aegean and traded with Egypt and Syria-Around 1450 BC something happened to the Minoan civilisation that brought about its sudden collapse. Although there is much debate among scholars it is believed that a volcanic eruption on the island of Thera brought about a decline in Minoan power which allowed the Greeks on the mainland, the Mycenaeans, to conquer Crete.
Swords and other weapons found in Mycenaean settlements and tombs also support this view. The Mycenaeans seem to have been expert metal workers.
-The Mycenaeans seem to have had extensive links across the Aegean and Near East-It was probably this trade expansion that caused the Trojan War. As the Mycenaean Kings began expanding their spheres of influence, they came into contact with the powerful trading City of Troy in Anatolia, which according to Homer was attacked and destroyed around 1250 BC.
-Mycenae’s power began to decline as the sea peoples invasions disrupted trade with the Near East
-This decline in Mycenaean wealth may have increased social unrest and some scholars believe that there were revolutions against the Kings causing a further decline in Mycenaean power
-In about 1000 BC the Mycenaeans were faced with the invasion of Greece by another Greek group known as the Dorians.
•Even if there are some critics claiming that Homer might not be the only poet of these two important poems, Aristotle points out convincingly in Poetics that The Iliad and The Odyssey differ from all the other compositions of the epic cycle through the unity and tautness of their action
One theory about Homer is that he was a woman!
The early Greeks insisted that there was a single individual named Homer, to whom they ascribed the Iliad, the Odyssey, and several minor works called the Homeric Hymns. However, around the third century B.C., the so-called Homeric Question was first propounded. Several of the grammarians of the time asserted that the Iliad and the Odyssey were actually composed by two different writers.
At various times, later European critics supported this view. Another school of thought, especially popular in the nineteenth century, claims that Homer never lived, and that the two epics are the collective works of groups of anonymous bards to whom the name Homer was later applied. These scholars suggest that the two poems were constantly revised and added to whenever they were recited and did not reach their present form until the 6th century B.C. when, in Athens, they were written down for the first time.
Because the people living nearest to the era of the composition of the poems believed them to be the product of one hand, the modern critic accepts this view and attributes the stylistic differences between the two epic poems to their having been composed at different stages in the poet's life and to the different themes of the works. Rather than take a defensive or apologetic position, the contemporary scholar insists that the burden of proof be on those who deny the existence of Homer. To date, this position has not been successfully challenged.While little if anything is known of Homer's life, his works are an everlasting tribute to him.
For thousands of years, the Iliad and the Odyssey have been the standards by which poets of all languages have measured themselves. Homer is unsurpassed in his understanding of human nature in all its aspects, for his keen observation of the world in which people live, for his essential sanity and good taste, and for his superb control of all the technical devices of his medium.
The task of excavating the mound proved to be extraordinarily difficult. Over a period of three years, Schliemann excavated the mound using the labour of as many as 106 workmen. He drove a great trench more than 230 feet wide and 45 feet deep into the hillside and removed an estimated 325 000 cubic yards of earth.
In search for Homer's city of Troy, Schliemann found not one but seven cities superimposed on one another. The second city from the bottom, Toy II, revealed evidence of burning and destruction and Schliemann concluded that this was the Troy of Homer that the Greeks had sacked and burned. Unwittingly, however, in this search for the Troy of Homer, Schliemann had actually dug through and destroyed the remains of other cities that were more likely contenders for Homer's Troy
Popular Interpretations of the Trojan War
The Treasure of Priam
Schliemann went on to crown his achievement by unearthing the so-called Treasure of Priam. At the end of his final season at Hissarlik in 1873 he noted:
"I came upon a large copper article of the most remarkable form, which attracted my attention all the more and i thought i saw gold behind it...I cut out the treasure with a large knife, which it was impossible to do without the very greatest exertion and the most fearful risk of my life, for the great fortification-wall, beneath which i had to dig, threatened every moment to fall down on me. But the sight of so many objects, every one which is of inestimable value to archeology, made me foolhardy, and i never thought of any danger. It would, however, have been impossible for me to have removed the treasure without the help of my dear wife, who stood by me ready to pack the things which i cut out in her shawl and to carry them away"
MICHAEL WOOD, In Search of the Trojan War, p. 58
The treasure consisted of golden pendants, earrings, bracelets, rings and diadems, as well as ups, salvers, cauldrons and vases - more than 8700 pieces in all.
Unfortunately, Schliemann's account of finding the treasure is believed to be untrue. Subsequent check of dates and events do not support his claims; for example, his 'dear wife' was actually in Athens at the time of the discovery. Some of the items are believed to have been planted by Scliemann himself to be then so dramatically discovered. This is called 'salting the evidence'
Go to Page 112 & 113 of Antiquity one and answer the questions relating to sources 9.3-9.5
LINEAR B TABLETS
Source Analysis Activity for Helen
The Trojan War has had a powerful and lasting impact beyond the classical wold. It has become an important part of our cultural heritage and has inspired modern artists, sculptors, novelists, poets, filmmakers and advertisers. Some of the greats of literature who have taken up Homer's themes and characters include Chaucer, Shakespeare and Goethe. The stories of the Trojan War have come to mean many things to many different people. The Trojan War can be interpreted as military history, romantic love story, or even as a passionate anti-war tale
FROM THUCYDIDES THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, BOOK 1.9
Agamemnon it seems to me, must have been the most powerful of ruler of his day; and it was for this reason that he raised the force against Troy, not because the suitors of Helen were bound to follow him by the oath which they had sworn to Tyndareus...at the same time he had a stronger navy than any other ruler; thus in my opinion, fear played a greater part that loyalty in the raising of the expedition against Troy
We are going to watch National Geographics: Troy
There are questions that you will need to complete during the video
The fabled treasure of King Priam was reputed to have included magnificent gold and silver artefacts of Trojan origin. This treasure has a fascinating history since its discovery by Schliemann in 1873. It disappeared at the end of the Second World War at the time of the Russian invasion and occupation of Berlin and in 1994 it surfaced at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg.
Less than one hundred years after Schliemann’s death, his famed collection of gold had vanished. Unearthed from the vault of history, in 1945 it disappeared without trace (from Germany) into the coffers (or treasuries) of Soviet Russia
1. Using the map provided create a linear timeline for the movements of Priam's treasure
2. Complete the Understanding and using sources activities
1.Who are the 4 main archaeologists associated with Troy. What did each achieve?
2.In what year did the Trojan War take place?
3.When was Homer’s Iliad written? Why is this important?
4.What are two theories for the cause of the Trojan War?
5.Who were amongst the first people to use the written word? What evidence do we have of this?
6.When Schliemann excavated at Mycenae what did he discover?
7.What is the main piece of historical evidence for the Trojan War? Are there any issues with this evidence?
8.How many ‘Troy’s’ are there? Which one is Homer’s Troy?
9.What is the name of the person who deciphered the Linear B tablets?
10.What are some of the issues surrounding Schliemann and his discoveries?
11.What evidence is there for the burning of Troy? Who found it?
12.What is ‘Priam’s Treasure?’ Why is it important?
13.What may have the Trojan Horse been a symbol of? Explain your answer.
14.What did Schliemann use to find the site of Troy?
15.Who are the three countries that lay claim to the Treasure of Priam? What are their reasons for claiming the treasure as their own?
Articles: "The Dream of Troy..." and "Heinrich Schliemann: Hero or Fraud?"