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A Basic Understanding

Richard Ainsworth-Masiello

on 11 April 2017

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Transcript of Schizophrenia

A Quick Look at the History of Schizophrenia Treatment.
Pre 1800s
Definition of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a chronic and very severe psychiatric disorder.
The disorder can affect not just the individual, but also the people closest to them.

DSM IV TR's Criteria for Schizophrenia
Positive Symptoms
Positive symptoms are all changes in how people think and/or behave. If the individual has two or more of these symptoms, then they can be characterized as suffering from Schizophrenia.
- Hallucinations
- Delusions
-Disorganized speech (lack of conversational coherence)
-Very disorganized or catatonic behavior

(Delusions are false beliefs, while Hallucinations are normally more auditory, such as hearing voices).
Negative Symptoms
Negative symptoms are those which mean that the person is unable to function in normal day to day life. Such symptoms include ;
-Affective flattening (lack of emotions)
-Avolition (lack of drive to do anything)
-Alogia (lack of speech)
Case Study
The following is a brief account about an individual who is starting to go through the symptoms of a paranoid schizophrenic.
Other Useful Websites and References
NHS (2012) Conditions. Schizophrenia (online) accessed at
Understanding Schizophrenia
Types of Modern Treatments
By Richard Ainsworth-Masiello
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (currently in its 4th Edition) is mainly used by healthcare professionals as a tool to define specific mental health disorders.

It states that anyone who has schizophrenia will fulfill certain criteria.

These criteria can be grouped as either being positive or negative symptoms.

American Psychiatric Association (2012) Mental Health. Schizophrenia (online) accessed at
How many people do you think suffer from schizophrenia at some point in the UK?
1 in 100

Drilling holes in the skull to release an evil spirit inside was deemed a normal form of treatment from prehistoric times through towards the early 1800s. Many different methods were undertaken on schizophrenic individuals, in an attempt to lessen the psychotic symptoms
Dr Benjamin Rush, an american physician throughout the 18th and 19th century, would literally spin and swing his patients for hours. He seemed to believe that all mental illness was a result of poor blood circulation
The 19th-20th century treatments were mainly based around asylums. This treated individuals more like animals and abused them both physically and mentally.
However in 1954, U.S. food and drug administration allowed for treatment using chloroprozamine.

Today, an early diagnosis of schizophrenia aids doctors in finding an effective treatment for the inflicted individual. With a combination of therapy and medication, there is hope for improvement and maybe a treatment that will benefit all clients.
Treatment Type
Always take into consideration the strain Schizophrenia can put on relatives.
How would you help someone like Martin?
Antipsychotic Medication
Typical Antipsychotics
Atypical Antipsychotics
- These have been around since the 1950's.
- They include such drugs as Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine and Haloperidol.
- Typical antipsychotic drugs are divided into 3 sub classes based on potency. These are low, medium and high.
- Introduced in the 1990's, these are the second generation of antipsychotics.
- Olanzapine, Risperidone and Quetiapine are included in this group.
-Clozapine can effectively treat antipsychotic symptoms, but can case dangerous side effects including
I highly recommend you visit the following link for more information on treatment types
Other Types of Treatment
Psycho-Social Treatments
This works well with people already on medication, and helps them tackle the day to day of coping with their illness.
Over time the client learn coping mechanisms and other useful skills on their own.
They eventually become independent and less likely to be hospitalized.
Illness Management Skills
Allowing the client to take an active role in their treatment (once being taught what they need to know).
This means they can spot the early warning signs of a relapse and plan a response as well as building on their coping skills.
Rehabilitation helps to emphasize social skills and vocational training.
This helps people with schizophrenia function better in their communities.
Rehabilitation includes lots of opportunities to help people become more independent.
These include money management and communication skills.
Family Education
It is important that family members know as much as possible about the condition.
With the help of a therapist, family members can learn coping strategies and problem-solving skills.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A Psychotherapy that focuses on thinking and behavior.
The therapist teaches people with schizophrenia how to test the reality of their thoughts and perceptions, how to "not listen" to their voices, and how to manage their symptoms overall.
CBT can help reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse.
Self Help Groups
Does what is says on the tin. Instead of using a professional, groups of suffers and relatives support and comfort one another.
Also, groups may be able to draw public attention to the discrimination many people with mental illnesses face.
Once patients learn basic facts about schizophrenia and its treatment, they can make informed decisions about their care.
As You can see, there is a large variety of treatments to suite everyone.
But it hasn't always been like this for schizophrenia patients...
Martin is a 21 year-old business major at a large university. Over the past few weeks his family and friends have noticed
increasingly bizarre behaviors
. On many occasions they’ve overheard him whispering in an
agitated voice
, even though there is no one nearby. Lately, he has
refused to answer or make calls on his cell phone
, claiming that if he does it will activate a deadly chip that was implanted in his brain by evil aliens.

His parents have tried to get him to go with them to a psychiatrist for an evaluation, but he refuses. He has
accused them on several occasions of conspiring
with the aliens to have him killed so they can remove his brain. He has
stopped attending classes altogether
. He is now so far behind in his coursework that he will fail if something doesn’t change very soon.

The causes of schizophrenia aren’t known for sure. It’s likely that several different factors, a combination of which will vary from person to person, may have an affect. These include:

- Genetic links - one in ten people with schizophrenia has a parent with the condition.

- Damage to the brain during pregnancy or birth.

- Use of recreational drugs, including ecstasy, LSD, amphetamines (speed), cannabis and crack.

- Stress.
Causes of Schizophrenia
Although Martin occasionally has a few beers with his friends, he’s never been known to abuse alcohol or use drugs. He does, however, have an estranged aunt who has been in and out of psychiatric hospitals over the years due to
erratic and bizarre behavior
As a starter, some quick fire questions.
Get some paper and write down your answers.
Bulletpoint three key points about schizophrenia
How many people suffer from schizophrenia at some point in the UK?
Name 2 positive symptoms and one negative symptom of schizophrenia.
What is the difference between atypical and typical medication and give 1 example of each.
Name a past method for treating schizophrenia which has been banned for ethical reasons.
Did you feel confident answering those questions? If not, then we will cover all of them within the presentation.
Lets go through the questions again and see how you feel now.
Bupa (2012) Health Topics - Schizophrenia (online) last accessed at
Thank you for taking the time to look through this presentation.


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W H E E L 2 Z O O M
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