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kayla pellizzari

on 31 January 2016

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Transcript of Inclusion

Opinions from Family Members
"Inclusion is every child's right... It makes all the difference in their self esteem and individual growth." - Patti H.
"I think inclusion can be a win win situation. It teaches understanding , compassion, acceptance to the other students , while the child with special needs can look at his or her peers as an example and the chance to meet a variety of people." - Diana H.
Case Study Question #1

Two years later, Alex is entering grade 9 and is going to a school where there is a segregated special education class. Alex has the intellectual capacity of a 7 year old and his IEP is focussing on communication, social, and life skill goals. What is the best classroom placement for Alex? Why? What goals can be achieved, and what strategies would need to be used?

There is a boy student, Alex, who is in grade 7 and is supposed to be included in a regular class. He has autism and has a one-on-one educational assistant. Despite this child’s IEP specifying his inclusive education placement, the EA often pulls Alex out of the classroom into the photocopy room to do one-on-one work. This means that Alex often does not spend anytime in the inclusive classroom. As the general classroom teacher, what strategies can be used to optimize Alex’s inclusive placement?
Case Study Question #2
Case Study Question #3

Let’s say that Alex goes into the special education class for his high school years. What can we do as teachers (general teachers or special education teachers) that can still facilitate inclusion, despite the special education class placement?
Teachers' Opinions On Inclusive Education
While some studies point out that teachers' attitudes to inclusive education are typically positive, other studies reveal that teachers' attitudes may be influenced by the disquiet they experience regarding the impact such a process will have on their time and skills.
Teachers who perceive themselves as competent inclusive educators, often have more positive attitudes toward inclusive education.
Research suggests that administrators' attitudes toward students with disabilities are less than positive, thereby impacting on the process of inclusion in schools; it is noted that administrative staff lack sufficient understanding and expertise regarding the delivery of services to students with disabilities.

“All students attend and are welcomed by their neighborhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.”
(Canadian Association for Community Living)
The opportunity to learn more about diverse learning needs was also highlighted by one teacher as an advantage, as attempts were made to include students with disabilities. Positive views of inclusive settings may have urged teachers within inclusive classrooms to look again at their current practices so that they were more accommodating of all ability levels.
Understanding Educator Attitudes Toward the Implementation of Inclusive Education
(Pearl Subban, Ph.D. Student)
This study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. The researcher interviewed 10 teachers to draw the following conclusions...
Inclusive Education in the Classroom
It is evident that the inclusion of students with disabilities into regular classrooms is additionally viewed as nurturing increased feelings of tolerance and respect. The belief is that students without disabilities become aware of differences among people. There is, moreover, a feeling that individual strengths are valued, within inclusive settings

Physical disabilities and students with self-care problems appear to force teachers to view the inclusion of such students with some apprehension.

Other Teachers' Opinions...
"I think that it's great for the students with special needs to feel like everyone else and not be labelled or separated. However, I do worry that they're not always having their needs met in a larger environment like that." - Jessica K.
How Can I make the School in my community more inclusive?
- By asking your school principal, what is being done to support teachers to include students with diverse needs in the classroom

- You can expect the school to provide a plan to support teachers & students through good inclusive practices. For example; collaboration, team work, innovative instructional practices, peer-strategies, & more.

What should you expect?
Canadian Association for Community Living
Inclusion Q & A
For Students with Disabilities
Rebecca Alves, Michelle Khairi, Vivian Lee, and Kayla Pellizzari

Who is Involved?
Benefits of Inclusive Education
Teaching Strategies
• Developing friendships with a variety of children, who each have their own individual needs
(Inclusive Education)

• Provides for children with disabilities of behaviour that is age-appropriate
(Down Syndrome Organization)

• Able to be educated in their own community instead of being sent far away to go to a special education school
(Down Syndrome Organization)

• Can be with peers their own age, while working on their own goals
(New Brunswick Association for Community Living)

• Students without disabilities will learn to accept those who have disabilities
(BC Teachers’ Federation)

• Learn from students with disabilities who are able to successfully achieve their goals despite challenges
(Teach Magazine)

• The differentiated instruction increases engagement of students
(Inclusive Schools Network)

• Creates a school that encourages respect and belonging of everybody
(Inclusive Education)

• Is key for individuals to understand the realities of life and to teach them to be inclusive in the future
(Down Syndrome Organization)
• Feel less isolated from the rest of the community

• Will form relationships with other families and they can support each other

• Students will be at home with their families instead of being sent away

(Down Syndrome Organization)

Legislation Laws
Professionals that are Involved

Key Principles of Inclusive Education
"Integration has never worked for either of my sons. After being integrated until 5th grade,
once Alex was in a self contained classroom, he no longer felt different or stupid - his words
, as I just asked him. Aidan is severely Autistic and has Down syndrome. His unique-ness makes him both physically and verbally disruptive. At age 18, he cannot be part of an integrated program as he cognitively functions at a 2-3 year old level.
Inclusion, to the best of their ability, is the key to both of my sons' success
. I believe in inclusion, not necessarily (for all) integration." - Diane W.
"Inclusion does not work for my son as he functions at about a 1 year old level (if that), so I appreciate having him "segregated" so that the teacher can actually focus on teaching him what HE needs, at HIS pace. That being said, for the sake of the other children, he needs to be regularly included somehow and not completely segregated from all of his peers. Other kids need to get to know him." - Kim C.
Accept all children into regular classes and into the life of the school.
Provide as much support to students, teachers and classrooms as necessary.
Look at all students for what they can do rather than what they cannot do.
Develop educational goals according to a child’s individual abilities while understanding that students do not need to have the same educational goals to learn together in regular classes.
Restructure schools and classes in ways that focus on individuals reaching their potential.
Have strong leadership from school principals and administrators.
Have teachers knowledgeable about different ways of teaching and learning so that students with varying abilities and strengths can learn together.
Have principals, teachers, parents, students and others work collaboratively to determine the most effective ways of providing a quality education in an inclusive environment.
Take parents seriously; especially parents' dreams and goals for their child’s future.
Empower the family to take the lead. Families know their child and can help teachers find ways for their child to be included in school; work with families to identify the key learning outcomes that would be a good fit for the child.
Make your IEP goals very specific
Make your IEP (Individual Education Plan) goals very specific in regards to skill acquisition , that way the goals are easily measured.

For example, rather than saying, “She will learn the numbers 1 to 20,” say “She will be able to independently identify the numbers from 1 to 20 at random.” These clear, measurable goals, for the IEP direct the plan for daily work.
Look for academic curricula modified for students with special needs and that have
clear increments of skill acquisition
. These programs can move on with the student from year to year, providing continuity and significantly lessening preparation time. The
of these programs can be very important for student comfort, which contributes to success. The Edmark sight word program, for example, has increasing levels of difficulty, built-in reviews, and a spelling component. In lessening the curriculum preparation load, these
“ready to go” programs free the teacher to focus time and energy on providing richer integration experiences
Talk with other teachers
You can ask the teachers of the younger grades, for materials which you can use with the students in your class with special needs. This is because children with special needs may learn at a slower rate and require more repetition of lessons, but they may still follow the general learning continuum that their age-mates used in earlier grades.
Track & measure daily for easy reporting.
Create a weekly feedback grid with the days across the top and the IEP with the associated activities down the left side. This grid provides an area to write about that activity each day of the week, you record how the activity went and any milestones that were achieved. References to any program modifications that are required can be made in a notes section at the bottom of the grid. The information collected in this grid, is useful for reviews and reports.
Barriers of Inclusive Education
• Not all students with disabilities are at the same educational levels or have the same degrees of disability
(Education Space)

• Teachers often feel that they are not trained to work with students with special needs
(BC Teachers’ Federation)

• Regular schools cannot always provide the intensive and focused instruction that some students with special needs require
(News for Parents)

"Parents, not the system, must decide how their child is best served in the education system. It might be a regular class or a special needs class. Kids are quite accepting of anyone (especially if they have always been there). Individual teachers make the inclusion work well from a teaching point of view. Requests should be made to best line up your child with the best teacher available whether it be in a regular class or a special needs class." - Brian A.
Canadian Association for Community Living
Canadian Teacher Magazine
"In discussing 'inclusive learning', we often consider how we can adapt an environment for one special child. Generally, an adaptation that helps one child can be applied to the whole class." - Denise F-C
"I think inclusion is important not only for our special kids but for other kids too. Our son has learned a lot from the other kids and I have had parents thank me for having Mas in their kids class because it has helped their child learn about diversity and compassion." - Roxanne D.
"As the mother of two boys with Autism and as an EA for 15 years who worked in both inclusive classrooms and segregated classes.... Both have pros and cons... and both depend on the needs of the child and the quality of the teachers and EA's. My sons have both been in segregated classes with integration for certain subjects (ie. gym, library, social events, trips, etc.). This works best for them as they socialize on an integrated level, but academically do better segregated in smaller classes with more attention." - Joanne C.

Curriculum Strategies
"An intellectual disability (also commonly referred to as a developmental disability among other terms) is, simply stated, a disability that significantly affects one's ability to learn and use information."
(Community Living Ontario)
Students with Learning Disabilities

Students with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities
"[Learning Disabilities] affect the brain's ability to receive, process, store, respond to and communicate information. [Learning Disabilities] are actually a group of disorders, not a single disorder. "
(National Center for Learning Disabilities)
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Ontario Human Rights Code

The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

Free and Public Education (FAPE)

Bill 13, Accepting Schools Act
General education teacher

Special education teacher

Resource teacher

Educational assistants (EA's)

Meeting individual needs (IEP)
Community (support & services)
Identifying and eliminating barriers
Sense of belonging
Initiatives (previous and existing)
School system
(Ontario Ministry of Education)
"Education that is based on the principles of acceptance and inclusion of all students. Students see themselves reflected in their curriculum, their physical
surroundings, and the broader environment, in which diversity is honoured and all individuals are respected."
(Ontario Ministry of Education)

"I believe strongly in inclusion! Three out of four of my children have Down Syndrome ,with one of them having autism as well. They have all been fully included in regular classrooms with their peers. The oldest is now in college, one of them is taking a victory lap and my daughter is in grade 10.
Does inclusion work? Absolutely! Does it take work? Absolutely!
" - Michele M.
"I have taught kindergarten and early childhood education for over 16 years and in every single class I have promoted inclusion.
Inclusion is for all children
, not just benefiting those who have a special need. Teachers can also learn from others including children. Everyone thinks things need to be perfect in the world and that is far from the truth. Teachers think they can just come into the classroom and everything will go textbook perfect - well, welcome to the real world. Honestly, adding children to your classroom who have special needs is a learning experience for them, other classmates and teachers.
We all learn responsibility, trust, devotion, empathy, honestly, respect
... The list goes on. I do understand that some different special needs can become disruptive in the classroom, however, so can bullying and class clowns. Instead
this can be used as a life lesson
and a learning opportunity that everyone can help problem solve. Not that it is everyone else's responsibility, but this
promotes humanity and respect
as well. Of course the child who has special needs does need extra help and guidance, as well as out of classroom therapy and learning, but they will truly learn from others around them and can help one another in the long run." - Marsha S.
Students' Opinions
Here are some responses from the students/friends in Eamon’s grade 8 class. A teacher wanted feedback from students who have friends with disabilities in their class.
Response #1:
- the experience of being around more people is better for Eamon because then he has a better perspective on the real world when he graduates and learns to live on his own or away from home
- there’s more experience with more things that aren’t based on one specific thing, Eamon learns more than 2 things at once in our classroom and outside at school
Eamon learns how to interact with people on a daily basis – this skill is a necessity in the real world
Response #2:
- fun to be with
- good friend
- brings out the good side of people
- helps lighten up our school day
- makes us feel better
- funny
- great to be with
none of us will be the same since we met Eamon
Response #3:
- it makes Eamon feel happier because
he is treated like a regular person not some outcast
- his presence makes others happy too
- Eamon being in the classroom with the rest of us, he knows what is coming up that he has to learn
it is easier for him to communicate with others because if he was put in a special needs class the other kids might have speaking disorders and he may not make many friends

Response #4:
- he’s a great friend
- he’s very smart and shows us that just because you may have a problem in your life everything will be ok
- he puts a smile on everyone’s face
- he makes us all laugh
- we as a class are
very considerate to his feelings and know he may be a little slower but he’s also a very, very, smart person
- without Eamon our class wouldn’t be the same
no one really thinks of him as different, to me he’s just another guy to hang out with
- not one person has anything bad to say about him, he’s awesome

Response #5: Ever since then I have really been thankful that I have met him. He has taught me some pretty interesting things that I will keep probably for the rest of my life. He has also
helped me with my people skills, my patience, my problem solving skills, my co-operation and many other skills that I had to learn but if I didn’t meet Eamon
, I wouldn’t know where I would be in developing those skills. I am happy that I know Eamon.
Stand Up if...
You have ever been in an inclusive classroom in which a student with a disability has been present.
Stand up if...
You ever went to a school that had a separate special education class.
Stand up if...
You think you might be interested in teaching special education at some point in your teaching career.
Today, Eamon is in his second year of college studying sports management at Lambton College. He has a part in a local play. He and his mother attribute these successes to his positive experiences with inclusion.
http: //quokkagirl.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/inclusive-education1.jpg
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Photo by: Diana Alves
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http://www.downsyndrome.org.za/main.aspx?artid=25 http://teachmag.com/archives/5284

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