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The Digestive System

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Mian Hamza

on 26 January 2014

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Transcript of The Digestive System

The Human Body Project
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats/Lipids

The Mouth:
It is the beginning of the digestive tract, where the Process of physical digestion begins as food is broken down from larger pieces to smaller pieces by the teeth. Smaller pieces are more easily digestible.
in the mouth the saliva also mixes with the food breaking it down through chemical digestion.
The food is chewed into the shape of a ball known as a bolus
Saliva contains Amylase
Amylase+(Starch or glycogen ) Maltose
Smaller Polysaccharides
The Pharynx
The pharynx also known as the throat, is a fragment of the digestive system that acquires food from the mouth
The pharynx is interlinked to the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe), the epiglottis: a flap of cartilage, prevents the bolus from entering the windpipe by covering the glottis: the path to the windpipe.
The pharynx has a swallowing reflex which ensures that with the aid of the larynx, food enters the esophagus.

Mucus
It is a slippery substance, found in the saliva, that protects the lining of the mouth from the wear and tear of food.
It is made up of : cells, water, salt, and glycoproteins known as mucins.
The Digestive System
The 5 processes of the digestive system:
Ingestion: To eat and take in the nutrients required
Digestion: To use physical and chemical processes to break down the food from complex organic molecules into simpler ones.
(Catabolism)
Assimilation: The simpler digested molecules are passed to the small intestine and carried to the bloodstream and used by the cells and tissue
Egestion: The removal of undigested products in the form of faeces.
The Digestive System
It is an organ system that changes food into essential nutrients required by the body.
They are assimilated into the human body from the bloodstream, and used by the cells and tissue. The digestive system also removes undigested products from the body.

You can choke if the swallowing reflex fails.
The Esophagus
The Esophagus is a tube connecting the pharynx and mouth to the stomach.
It's main function is to propel the bolus into the stomach through peristalsis.
Physical Digestion vs Chemical Digestion
The Journey Begins Here
Two types of digestion occur here:
Physical Digestion:
Mastication (chewing), breaks down food into smaller pieces, so that it can be easily swallowed and that there is a larger surface area for enzymes to act on
Chemical Digestion:
Amylase: an enzyme secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth break down starch & glycogen into maltose and into smaller polysaccharides
Salivary Glands
Where saliva is synthesized and sent to the oral cavity through ducts.
The saliva contains amylase which is an enzyme that digests starch and glycogen.
Saliva is secreted through Salivary glands in the presence of food but may be secreted through a learned association between eating and time of day, or the smell of food. Other stimuli include watching food network, or other images and videos of food.
These stimuli are sometimes referred to as "mouthwatering" in layman terms.
Sphincters
The swallowing reflex is triggered when a bolus reaches the Pharynx
There are two sphincters; The esophageal sphincter and the pyloric sphincter.
Peristalsis is the involuntary contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal and circular muscles. Which create a wave like motion, in order to propel food forward through the digestive system.
The sphincters are a contracting ring of muscle guard the Esophagus (Esophageal sphincter) and the small intestine (Pyloric Sphincter) from the stomach acid and other components.
The esophageal Sphincter
The esophageal sphincter prevents stomach acid and other stomach contents from entering the esophagus, and allows the entry of the bolus into the stomach
The Pyloric Sphincter
The Pyloric sphincter
prevents

stomach acid
and other stomach contents from entering the small intestine and allows the entry of the chyme into the small intestine.
The Sphincters also regulate the entry and release of food.
Pancreas
The pancreas produces an alkaline solution rich in Bicarbonate (HCO3 -) along with other enzymes. The pancreas helps neutralize the acidity of the chyme and is a buffer. Protease is one of the enzymes secreted by the pancreas; it is secreted in an inactive form and is activated in the lumen of the duodenum

Liver
The liver produces
bile,
The bile is made up of bile salts.
The bile is an emulsifier (detergent).
The synthesis of bile in the liver also helps in the disposal of dead read blood cells
The Gallbladder
The gallbladder is where bile is stored and concentrated
Small Intestine
1st part: Duodenum
Jejunum
The 2nd part of the small intestine
An organ with an elastic wall and a capacity of 2L of foods and liquids. In order to digest proteins the stomach secretes gastric juices. These gastric juices mix with the bolus to form Chyme.
Gastric Juices
The stomach secretes two materials:
1: Hydrochloric Acid
2: Pepsin, a protease is secreted in it's inactive form, known as pepsinogen
Hydrochloric Acid
HCL breaks the extracellular matrix that binds cells together in plant and animal substances.
Hydrochloric acid is highly concentrated so it increases the PH in the stomach to 2 and it also kills bacteria and
denatures
proteins found in the food.
The two materials in the gastric juices are kept inactive until they are secreted into the stomach
The two components in the gastric juice are synthesized by cells residing in the gastric glands of the stomach.
Hydrochloric acid is made by paretial cells located in the gastric glands. The partial cells secrete H+ and Cl- ions into the lumen using a ATP driven pump where the two ions combine to form HCL.

Pepsin
A protease/protein digesting enzyme that is secreted by chief cells into the lumen as pepsinogen.

It is activated by HCL which breaks off a small portion of it
;
exposing it's active site.
The gastric juices are secreted in inactive forms
in order to
protect
the stomach. A layer of mucus is also
formed
every three days.
Pepsin+ Protein=smaller Polypeptides
The Ileum
The ileum is the third and final part of the small intestine,it's also the longest.
It plays a main role in the absorption of vitamin B12, and processing carbohydrates and proteins.
The Small intestine
The small intestine is more than 6m in length and is the longest part of the digestive system.
90% of food eaten by us is assimilated by the small intestine.
The small intestine has 3 parts
1: Duodenum (1 foot long)
2: Jejunum (5-8 feet long)
3:ileum (16-20 feet long)
Food stays in the small intestine for 1-4 hours.
The jejunum is where the main absorption of nutrients take place, here there are the villi which look like fingers, they are formed of epithelial cells.The walls of the small intestine are thin but are folded many times, to help increase surface area.
Each epithelial cell has smaller and more microscopic villi known as microvilli, that are close to the intestinal lumen
.
The villi, microvilli and folds in the small intestine help increase surface area for absorption of nutrients.
The absorption of nutrients in the small intestine can be passive or active depending on the type of nutrient present. Many nutrients move by active transport by pumps in the epithelial cells of the villus, and allows a larger scale of absorption of nutrients.
Branches of veins and capillaries surround the Jejunum carry nutrients away from the intestine as they converge into a large vein known as the hepatic portal vein.

The liver also receives blood from the hepatic portal vein, and administers the distribution of nutrients throughout the body. It also plays a role in the detoxification of many molecules.
The Large Intestine
The large intestine is the final part of the alimentary canal, it's main function is the expulsion of indigestible matter in the form of faeces and the retaining of water from those indigestible food materials.
The large intestine has 5 parts:
1: Cecum
2: Colon
3: Appendix
4: Rectum
5: Anal Canal
The Colon
The colon is 5-6 feet long and it connects the cecum to the rectum. It's constituents are the ascending colon, traverse colon, descending colon and the colon. The sigmoid colon is shaped like a S.
The Cecum
The cecum, shaped like a pouch is the first part of the large intestine, it functions in the production of faeces, because it absorbs salts and fluids from the indigestible food materials.
It also coats the faeces with mucus to prevent colon cancer due to abrasion.
The Appendix
The appendix plays a small role in the bodies immune system
Stool is passed within the colon through peristalsis. The faeces turn solid from liquid as water is removed from it.
It takes 12-24 hours for stool to traverse about the colon.
Rectum&Anus
The rectum is where the indigestible materials/feces are stored until they are expelled from the body
The lining of the colon is filled with harmless bacteria
The most common bacteria living in the colon is Escherichia coli (E coli). many serotypes(types) of E coli are harmless but some may cause diarrhea
E coli forms one third of the dry mass of the feces
The anus is the final part of the digestive tract, it's function is to eliminate faeces from our body. It contains two anal sphincters and muscles known as pelvic floor muscles.
The sphincters are known as the internal and external sphincters.
The pelvic floor muscle stops faeces from exiting our bodies when it's not supposed to
The internal sphincter prevents the subconscious release of stool. The external sphincter allows the conscious release of stool.
It's wall is made up of a wide mucous membrane
The mucous membrane absorbs water and salts
Bile aids in the digestion of lipids
Why is the digestion of large food molecules essential?
1:The food eaten by us is made by other organisms and made up of many compounds, that's not suitable for humans. So the compounds must be digested/broken into it's constituents and reassembled into a compound more suitable for us.

2: The molecules of food have to be small enough to pass into the villi in the small intestine in order for absorption to occur.
Explain the need for Enzymes in digestion
Enzymes are biological catalysts that break down large complex food molecules into smaller simpler molecules(catabolism) , so that they may be absorbed or assimilated.
Enzymes also speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy for the catabolic reaction to occur while remaining at a constant temperature (body temperature)

The reaction would otherwise occur at a very slow rate or require a very high temperature to occur at an adequate rate. The high temperature would prove to be dangerous because it affects the functions of other organs.
GERD
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease,(GERD) is a condition, that occurs when the contents inside the stomach (food and fluids) flow backwards into the esophagus.
Symptoms:
A feeling of Nausea after a eating
Heartburn or a feeling of pain in the chest area that increases by lying down, bending or eating.
hoarseness
A Chronic cough
Prevalence: The prevalence of GERD in The US of A is 10-20 %

The treatment of GERD is through drugs,
These drugs include Antacids and Histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), Fundoplication Surgery, Endoscopic treatment, and changes in lifestyles exercise, diet. Avoiding food and beverages that trigger GERD can also help.

Ulcerative Colititis
It is the inflammation of the colon; a part of the large intestine. It's cause is yet to be discovered, if Ulcerative Colititis is prevalent for a long period of time it may lead to colon cancer.
Symptoms:
Abdominal Pain
Diarrhea
Rectal Bleeding
Prevalence: 1.2 to 20.3 cases per 100,000 people every year.
Treatment: Medications such as anti-inflammatory agents (5-ASA compounds) and medicines called mimmunomodulators.
Surgery is another option but is only done when absolutely necessary.
The first part of the small intestine is C-shaped and about 10 inches in size.
It is the main portion of the small intestine and it's where enzyme secretion takes place.
The chyme from the stomach enters here and is digested by enzymes from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and by gland cells in the duodenum walls
The Stomach
Functions
Circulatory System
The transport of gases, nutrients, waste throughout the body. The protection of the body from infection and blood loss. Thermoregulation: maintenance of the body's constant temperature. Fluid balance.
Explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins
Arteries, contain a thick outer wall made up of: elastic fibers, collagen; this helps avoids leaks. Their thick wall helps them cope with the high pressure. Their narrow lumen helps create a high pressure in the heart. Arteries have thick layers of muscle fibers and elastic fibers that enables them to pump blood after each contraction (the heart's contraction).
Veins, unlike arteries, constitute of thin layers; they contain a few muscle fibers and circular elastic fibers. The fact that they are thin, allows surrounding muscles to push on the veins, making them flat and pushing blood forward. The vein has a low pressure, and is constitutes of a thin layers of collagen (longitudinal) and the vein has a low pressure inside, and hence a wide lumen (unlike the artery), it makes up for the slow flow of the blood because there is a low pressure.
Capillaries contain a cell thick wall, which helps in the diffusion of materials across the capillary (it can occur quickly) They have narrow lumen's allowing them to fit in tiny spaces. Their lumen also increases the surface area for diffusion. They contain pores which allow the diffusion of Phagocytes, which help fight infection. Some of the plasma also passes through these pores and help make tissue fluid.
Composition of Blood
Red blood cells take up 38-48% of the volume of the blood, White blood cells take up 2-3% and the plasma takes up 50-60%
Composition of Blood
91% of the plasma is water, 7% of the plasma is made of plasma proteins: Serum Albumin, Fibrinogen ans prothombin, immunoglobins, a-Globulins, B-Globulins and enzymes. 2% of the plasma is made of Nutrients,Hormones and vitamins, Electrolytes and excretory products and mineral ions.
Nutrients: Amino Acids, Sugars, Lipids (fatty Acids,Glycerol
Hormones: Insulin, Sex hormones, Vitamins A and B12.
Excretory Products: Urea
Mineral ions: Sodium, Bicarbonate, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride
Composition of Blood
Non-Plasma: Erythrocytes make up 38-48% of the total blood.
Platelets also classify under red blood cells.
Leukocytes (White Blood cells) make 2-3% of the total volume, Lymphocytes make up 24% of the Leukocytes, Nutrophilis make up 70%, Eosinophils make up 1.5%, Basophils make up 0.5%.
Route of Blood
Oxygen lacking blood enters the right atrium into the superior and inferior vena cava. After that the heart pumps it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. then to the lungs through the pulmonary valve by the pulmonary arteries. The left atrium passes it's oxygen rich blood , which it receives from the lungs. It passes the O2 rich blood to the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps it to the aorta through the aortic valve. The cells in the body receive the nutrients and oxygen from the blood giving waste to the blood. The waste is given to the kidneys and the blood is returns to the right atrium and it lacks oxygen.
Relation between structure and function of Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes are shaped like a biconcave disc this gives them a larger surface area which enables them to carry more oxygen. They are also flexible which allows them to easily move through tight spaces in the blood vessels.
Circulatory System
There are two types of circulatory systems:
In an open system the circulatory fluid and the extracellular fluid of the body tissues is mixed with the circulating fluid, there is no difference between them. e.g arthropods
In a closed system the circulating fluid a.k.a the blood moves through the vessels that transport blood towards and away from the heart. e.g A human
Types of Circulatory Systems
Reptiles,mammals and Amphibians have double circulation which means that the blood is received by the heart where it is exposed to oxygen.




Fish have a single circulation where the blood is exposed to oxygen through the gills, but doesn't get exposed to the heart
Disorders
Arrythmia: An irregular heartbeat, or the heart has no specific rhythm. A sign of arrythmia is clearly the evidence of an irregular heartbeat, dizziness and palpitations. The prevalence of arrythmia is common in millions of households, while some forms of arrythmia are dangerous others prove to be harmless. To treat arrythmia there are specific medications: antiarrhythmic medications. An electric pulse can be used to stabilize and regulate heartbeat.
Athersosclerosis is the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to deposits of fatty plaques because of high fat diets. The narrowing of blood vessels causes a high blood pressure. Athersosclerosis has no definite symptoms until the arteries are severely narrow. The prevalence of Athersosclerosis is 52% in men and 51.7% in women. Treatments include a change in lifestyle, diet, special medication, and surgery: Angioplasty, Carotid Endarterectomy and Coronary Artery Bipass grafting.
Functions
The function of the respiratory system is to supply oxygen to the blood through the heart by breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide.
The oxygen received from the respiratory system is given to the blood to transfer to the whole body.
Respiration occurs with the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm.
Respiratory System
Adaptations of the alveoli
The walls of the alveoli are near a dense network of capillaries, which allows easy gas exchange with the air and the blood. There are many small alveoli rather than large alveoli, this helps provide a large surface area for the diffusion of gasses. The thin walls allow a quicker diffusion of gasses while the alveoli's moist walls help increase the speed of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. The elastic walls of the alveoli allow more oxygen to diffuse in, they allow increased ventilation, a higher capacity.
Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Hemoglobin in red blood cells attains oxygen,the oxygen is transported to the selected cell (target cell), after transferring oxygen the blood attains carbon dioxide from the cell which it transfers to the lungs which is then exhaled into the air through the lungs.
Path of an O2 Molecule
Oxygen enters the lungs through the nostrils (nose) when a difference in pressure (negative air pressure) caused by the relaxation of the diaphragm, which results in a lower pressure in the lungs than the surrounding atmosphere . This allows the surrounding air to enter the lungs. Then the oxygen flows down the trachea to the bronchial tubes and then to the alvoeli, where it is attached to the RBC with hemoglobin. After that the oxygen is transported throughout the body.
Process of Inhalation and exhalation
I
nhalation: Begins with the contraction of the external intercostal muscles, which causes the rib cage to move up and out. The diaphragm begins to contract, becoming flat which increases the volume of the thorax with a drop in pressure. Hence the pressure in the lungs drops and is less with respect to the surrounding atmospheric pressure. This pressure difference causes air to flow into the body through the nose mouth and trachea until the exterior air pressure (outside the body) equals the air pressure inside the body.
Exhalation: When the external intercostal muscles contract the rib cage moves down and in. This cause the abdominal muscles to contract which causes the diaphragm to increase in size and take up a dome like shape. This causes the thorax to contain a decreased volume , with an increased pressure. Air then exits the lungs through the nose, mouth and trachea.
Major Disorders
Asthma: Is a chronic lung condition, where the bronchial smooth muscle contracts periodically hence causing a restriction of air movement.
Symptons include: Shortness of Breath, Coughing, Chest pain and Chest pain. The prevalence in the United States is 8.4% of all adults and children, it may vary in different countries. Medication includes inhalers (bronchodilators), and other oral drugs.
Bronchitis: It is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes. People with bronchitis produce more mucus and breathe less air. The inflammation causes the mucous membrane that lines the bronchi to swell which causes an increase in mucous production but a decrease in the movement of the mucus (caused by the cilia). Symtoms include a blocked or runny nose, coughing wheezing, fatigue, and the production of white,grey, yellow or green mucus. The prevalence of bronchitis is 44 out of every 1000 adults. Treatment of bronchitis consists of simple thing such as getting proper sleep or drinking lots of fluids, however sever bronchitis is treated through oral steroids and supplemental oxygen could be required.
Reproductive and Development System
The process of spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of spermotozoa within the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
The Reproductive and Development System
It is a collection of organs whose function is to ensure that the human species survives, by producing egg cells in females and sperm cells in males, transporting and sustaining the egg and sperm cells, nourishing and nurturing the offspring that is developing and producing hormones..
First the spermatogonia (2n) divides by mitosis and hence produces more spermatogonia. Then the spermatogonia grow and become bigger in size and form Primary Spermatocyes (2n). After that, the primary spermatocytes (2n) go through the process of meiosis, and produce 2 secondary spermatocytes (n). The 2nd stage of meiosis then occurs and the spermatocytes by meisosis produce 4 haploid spermatids (n). The spermatids attach to the Sertoli cells which allow them to develop into spermatozoa (n). The spermatozoa then leave the Sertoli cells and leave the testes by fluid residing in the middle of the seminiferous tubule.
Contrast Menstrual cycles and estrous cycle
The process of Oogenesis
In the female fetus, there are ovaries with cells called oogonia (2n) which then divide by mitosis and form more oogonia cells.
These cells grow in size and become Primary oocytes (2n). Then the primary oocyes (2n) start the process of meiosis but then they stop at Prophase I. Then the primary oocytes and focille cells combine to form a primary follicle. Everytime there is a menstrual cycle some new primary follicles form. Throughout that time, the primary oocyte forms 2 haploid (n) daughter cells by Meiosis I. The cytoplasm of the primary ocyte is unequal and forms a secondary oocyte (n) and a small polar body (n). After that the secondary oocyte starts division by meiosis and then stops at prophase II. In the meantime follicile cells are reproducing and dividing. The follicille eventually bursts and releases an egg called a secondary oocyte (n). After fertilization the secondary oocyte goes through meiosis with the sperm already inside the egg; it forms an ovum.
The unequal cytoplasm is benefitial for the ovum because it has the potential to provide the ovum with a greater amount of food.
The estrous cycle is the interim between one ovulation and the next, when the endometrium is absorbed by the uterus and there is no large amounts of fluid flow. Allot of mammals enter heat/estrus near the time that they ovulate. During that time they exhibit increased sexual desires, it is also the only time their vagina's condition allows mating , however primates that go through the menstrual cycle can mate at any time. Mammals such as baboons show clear signs of fertility, for example the buts of baboons turn bright red and, cats and dogs act differently. Menstrual cycles, which occurs in many female primates , occurs once a month, where the endometrium sheds through the vagina and cervix. unlike the estrous cycle, in the menstrual cycle no special sexual desires are felt, and females can reproduce during the duration of the menstrual cycle. Ovulation however is not noticable in primates that go through the menstrual cycle, unlike in mammals that go through the estrous cycle. One of the main differences between the estrous cycle in mammals and the menstrual cycle in human females is that the estrous cycle identifies the period of fertility, and the menstrual cycle identifies the end of the period of fertility.
Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction is when an offspring is created by the fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete, sperms are male gametes while eggs are female gametes.

While asexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring without the fusion of any male or female gametes.

The difference is that in asexual reproduction gametes don't fuse, while in sexual reproduction gametes fuse in order to produce an offspring. Allot of invertebrates reproduce asexually by fission.
The Ovarian cycle
The cycle starts when there is a discharge from the hypothalamus of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This acts as a stimulator for the release of small amounts of LH and FSH from the pituary. Follicle growth is then stimulated by FSH and helped by LH and cells from the follicle start creating estradiol. As estradiol are low, it inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH, making their levels low, but as the estradiol levels increase so do the FSH, LH. The high LH levels starts the final stage of maturation of ovulation and the follicle. The fact that high estradiol secretion causes increased LH secretion is positive feedback, follicles also have more receptors for LH at this stage.The follicle then matures and bursts as the LH concentration peaks and it releases a secondary oocyte.This is known as ovulation.
After that the follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, by the stimulation of LH to the remnants of the follicle. The corpus luteum then secretes progesterone and estradiol. Also as hormone levels rise, negative feedback is exerted on the hypothalamus and the pituary, causing the inhibition of the secretion of LH and FSH.
The menstrual cycle of humans and primates
The production of Estradiol stimulates the endoterium prior to ovulation.
However after ovulation the maintenance of the endoterium is stimulated by estradiol and progesterone that is produced by the corpus luteum.
The corpus luteum then disintegrates, and the arteries in the endometrium constrict because the hormones rebel. The lining then disintegrates and blood flow is reduced. The constriction of the arteries ultimately leads to blood being released from the lining, during menstruation.
Conception, Embryonic development and Birth
After fertilization occurs, a zygote is produced, which goes through cell division and forms a group of around 16 cells called a morula. This stage is known as cleavage. Later on, when more than 100 cells form, the morula is now termed as the blastula. Then the blastocyst forms, the blastula is surrounded by allot of cells. The embryo embeds into the endometrium and two or three germ layers are formed when cells move into the interior of the blastula during the process of gastrulation. The embryo is now known as the gastrula, and the three germ layers are defined the : ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. Then the organs start to form, a.k.a organogenesis. 8 weeks pass and the structures have formed at this point, the embryo is now known as a fetus.
Germ Layers
There are three embryonic germ layers: the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm.

The endoderm, produces the thyroid, liver, pancreas, epithelial lining in the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the epithelial lining in the urinary bladder. The endoderm is also the innermost layer of germs.

The mesoderm is the middle layer of germs, that produces the kidneys, reproductive organs, heart, bone, connective tissues, cartilage, muscles, and the blood and lymph vessels. The mesoderm is sandwiched between the endoderm and the ectoderm.

The ectoderm is the outer layer of germs, it produces the mammary glands, sensory nervous tissue of the nose, eye and ear, the skin, and central and peripheral nervous system.





Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction continued
Sexual reproduction is more prevalent in animals than asexual reproduction.
Corals are species that asexually reproduce through budding; the process in which the offspring is grown out of its parents body.
Certain species of ants reproduce by pathogenesis, which is the process where an egg is developed without fertilization.
Sea stars (starfish) reproduce asexually through fragmentation and regeneration, where the body parts of an animal break off and can successfully regenerate into a whole animal.

Male Hypogonadism
Male Hypogonadism occurs when the boy does not produce enough testosterone. Testosterone plays a role in masculinity and male development during puberty, it also has the ability to produce sperm.
A person may either have Male Hypogonadism by birth or acquire it later on through an infection or injury.
Symptoms:
During fetal development symptoms include: female genitals or underdeveloped male genitals.
During Puberty symptoms include: poor growth of body hair, penis and testicles. Symptoms also include the development of breast tissue and the voice does not become deeper.
During Adulthood symptoms include erectile dysfunction, infertility, and a decrease in facial hair growth.
Prevalence: It's prevalence is 39% for men that are 45 years or older, prevalence for younger males i.e. teens and the fetus are unknown.
The options of treatment for a male with Hypogonadism:
1: Hormone replacement: Testosterones enter into the body through injections, oral tablets, patches and other various methods.


Vaginal Yeast Infection
Vaginal yeast infection is the inflammation of the vagina due to a buildup of yeast and fungus in the area. It causes irritation and itchiness.
Symptoms include intense irritation and itching, a feeling of burning, the redness of the vulva, and vaginal paing and soreness.

Nearly 75% of all women will experience Vaginal Yeast Infection once in their lifetime and 45% of all women will experience Vaginal Yeast Infection more than once.

Some of the treatments are:
Eating yoghurt (with lactobacillus) or applying it to the vagina
Taking antifungal medication such as Fluconazole
Maintaining the hygiene in the vaginal area and regularly cleaning there
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