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Transcript of Television
The Television Act
The Television Act 1954 was a British law which permitted the creation of the first commercial television network in the United Kingdom, ITV.
By the early 1950s, the only television service in Britain was operated as a monopoly by the British Broadcasting Corporation, and financed by the annual television licence fee payable by each household which contained one or more television sets.
This instrument can teach, it can illuminate; yes, and it can even inspire. But it can do so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it to those ends. Otherwise, it is nothing but wires and lights in a box.
— Edward R. Murrow
How TV began
The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced back to the discovery of the photo conductivity of the element selenium by Willoughby Smith in 1873, the invention of a scanning disk by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1884 and John Logie Baird's demonstration of televised moving images in 1926.
Televisions gets introduced to the U.S.
David Sarnoff, President of the RCA Victor company ,introduced electronic television to the U. S. at the 1939 World's Fair, and began regularly scheduled broadcasting at the same time. CBS and Don Lee also began regularly scheduled programs.
Experimental broadcast television began in the early 1930s, transmitting fuzzy images of wrestling, music and dance to a handful of screen. It wasn't until the 1939 World's Fair in New York, where RCA unveiled their new NBC TV studios in Rockefeller Plaza, that network television was introduced.
According to dictionary.com, communication is defined as the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs or means of sending messages, orders, etc., including telephone, telegraph, radio, and television. With the invention of broadcast television the ways that ideas were exchanged began to change rapidly.
FIRST PUBLIC TV DEMO WAS CONDUCTED IN PHILADELPHIA IN 1934.
After RCA launched a television service in 1939, the Americans concluded that the new medium would have to sink or swim in a commercial market
In 1941, Bulova Watches were the first to advertise on television,
During World War II, television stations began to limit their broadcasting time, but as soon as the war was over, the industry exploded with one show after another.
Though production of television receivers came to a halt during the war, television continued in a number of ways. In the United States, broadcasting continued on a limited basis throughout the war. RCA provided TRK-12 sets for use in hospitals in New York for injured servicemen, and had programs two nights a week. Both W2XBS and W2XAB broadcast civil defense programs. In 1943, Philco advertised that its Philadelphia station, WPTZ, had broadcast the Army-Penn football game. Don Lee's station in Los Angeles broadcast a regular schedule during the war. Many stations hired women to operate cameras and control panels to continue television programming, including W9XBK/WBKB in Chicago. Although Engineers who had been developing television technology put their expertise toward designing radar and communications systems for the military.
- Cable television (originally called CATV or community antenna television) was developed in the late 1940's for communities unable to receive TV signals because of terrain or distance from TV stations. Cable television system operators located antennas in areas with good reception, picked up broadcast station signals and then distributed them by coaxial cable to subscribers for a fee.
In 1946, a long line of television commercials for automobiles would begin as Chevrolet was the first car company to use the new medium of advertisement.
In 1947, families were able to see the first Baseball World Series transmitted into their homes. And that year they would see the President of the United States give the first televised speech from the White House.
In 1950, cable systems operated in only 70 communities in the United States. These systems served 14,000 homes.
IN 1952, THE FCC TENTATIVELY APPROVED AN EXPERIMENTAL CBS COLOR SYSTEM. HOWEVER, BECAUSE BLACK-AND-WHITE TV SETS COULD NOT RECEIVE IT’S SIGNAL, THE SYSTEM WAS INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE SETS MOST AMERICANS OWNED AT THE TIME. IN 1954, RCA’S COLOR SYSTEM, WHICH SENT TV IMAGES IN COLOR BUT ALLOWED OLDER SETS TO RECEIVE THE COLOR IMAGES AS BLACK-AND-WHITE, USURPED CBS’S SYSTEM TO BECOME THE COLOR STANDARD. ALTHOUGH THE NBC BEGAN BROADCASTING A FEW SHOWS IN COLOR IN THE MID-1950’S, IT WASN’T UNTIL 1966, WHEN THE CONSUMER MARKET FOR COLOR SETS HAD TAKEN OFF, THAT THE BIG THREE NETWORKS (CBS, NBC, AND ABC) BROADCAST THEIR ENTIRE EVENING LINEUPS IN COLOR.
Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U.S. in 1953, high prices and the scarcity of color programming greatly slowed its acceptance in the marketplace. The first national color broadcast (the 1954 Tournament of Roses Parade) occurred on January 1, 1954, but during the next ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. It was not until the mid-1960s that color sets started selling in large numbers, due in part to the color transition of 1965 in which it was announced that over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color that fall. The first all-color prime-time season came just one year later.
One of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth, potentially three times that of the existing black-and-white standards, and not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum. In the United States, after considerable research, the National Television Systems Committee approved an all-electronic system developed by RCA which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth. The brightness image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television sets at slightly reduced resolution, while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited-resolution color display. The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the eye to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image. The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement.
It was known as the "Golden Age" of TV. Shows were being created at a rapid pace, and lifestyles were changing as families no longer huddled around the radio to hear the news. They could actually see it right there in front of them. It would create an entire new industry, leaving those who had entertained in the theatres or on radio trying to readjust to the new medium of entertainment.
- As cable developed, FCC officials worried that power and profits were growing increasingly concentrated in fewer and fewer industry players’ hands. Thus, causing the FCC to mitigate the situation through a variety of rules and regulations. These rules and regulations began to undercut the power of television Networks.
- The cables industry rise to prominence was mainly due to the shortcomings of broadcast television. While improving signal receptions in most communities, the cable era introduced narrowcasting which was the providing of specialized programming for diverse and fragmented groups. This attracted both advertisers and audiences, cable programs provide access to certain target audiences that could not be guaranteed in broadcasting.
Television in the 21st Century
The average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each day. Two months of nonstop TV-watching per year. In a 65-year life, that person will have spent 9 years glued to the tube.
Do you have nine years to waist?
30% of Television is commercials
In 2010 Netflix expanded their product to
37% of adult's 24-35 years old have given up on cable and are putting Netflix in its place.
Cable companies have partnered with companies like Netflix and Hulu
- German inventor Paul Nipkow managed to achieve static black and white television transmission with his famous “Electric Telescope” in 1884.
- Black and White TV broadcasts in the United States on July 1, 1941
- (The first picture sep 7 1927) The sudden outbreak of World War II stopped progress on TV transmissions and improvement in technological development in making TV a household item for most families. The B/W limited scale TV transmission continued to excite people. The images of war sites on mini screens of old fashioned TV sets would pull crowd to watch those and get influenced by the devastation of the mad war. Seeing is believing, worked to make people understand as who was winning the war and who was controlling the known cities at different stages of the years long fighting. It was a sight not to be forgotten for those who first witnessed defeat of German armies on the German land towards the last days of the war
- The number of people with licences for black and white TVs has steadily declined, from 212,000 at the turn of the century to fewer than 50,000 in 2006. By the beginning of 2013, it had fallen to 13,202. At the beginning of 2014 is has decreased to 11,550 households in the country still watching black and white television, official figures reveal
- The price of a black and white licence is frozen at £49 until 2016
Black and White TV
African Americans on Television
Percent of Black homes with television!
Average 30 second
Most expensive commercial
Baby Boomer: 49-64 years old
Generation X: 35-48 years old
Generation Y: 13-34 years old
Between the 1940s and 2000s, television had a profound and wide-ranging impact on American society and culture. It influenced the way that people think about such important social issues as race, gender, and class.
Television played an important role in the political process, particularly in shaping national election campaigns and major events. i.e. Martin Luther King Jr. Speech
"Golden Age" is a term to label that period in the history of a nation, movement, artistic medium or the like during which its greatest achievements were realized. It is not an absolute term since it does not intend to describe the best possible epoch. That being the case, there can be no doubt that for African Americans in television, the last half of the 1960s was a Golden Age.
In part, the changing complexion of TV in the late 1960s was a reflection within the industry of the changes by the great social and legal movement that was the push for civil rights. Until this date there had been few sponsored network shows headed by black actors.
There were more than two dozen programs featuring black actors as leading characters, or in prominent, regular supporting roles.
During the 1970s, television program ratings began using such viewer characteristics as age, income, education, and ethnicity to break down the mass audience into smaller groups.
The image of African Americans has been greatly downgraded the roles they play on television sitcoms. On these shows African Americans are used as maids, clowns, and buffoons. This misrepresentation of African Americans has become common place through out the media.
Rev. Jesse Jackson
said in 1985 that the television portray blacks as "less intelligent than we are"
Spike Lee explains that these images have negative impacts " In my neighborhood, we looked up to athletes, guys who got the ladies and intelligent people." said Lee. "If you're intelligent, your called white guy or girl."
• Author C. Clarke invented the Satellite and
• In 1974 the first Anik and Westar satellite launched and was considered the framework for satellite broadcasting
• In the years 1976 to 1980 was the beginnings of the satellite TV industry, with the first signals broadcast from HBO, TBS and CBN
• Later, the Society for Private and Commercial Earth Stations (the Satellite Television Industry Association, Inc.) and the COMSAT/Satellite Television Corporation’s request to construct and operate a Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) system.
• From 1981 to 1985, the “big-dish” C-Band satellite market sells begin to increase until people started getting educated about cable television
• cable television was started by John Walson and Margaret Walson in the spring of 1948 in Pennsylvania
• In 1950, cable systems operated in only 70 communities in the United States.
• In these 70 communities cable systems only served 14,000 homes.
• On average, cable systems offer limited basic channels like local broadcasting stations such as ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, PBS; local government, and education channels. They also offer 30-50 expanded basic channels
• The Super Bowl may have the highest television ratings in the U.S.
• HBO and CBS planning stand-alone streaming services
• Cable TV is less likely to be affected by the weather, whereas, with a satellite tv was more likely to be affected by the weather
• According to the research, cable television is more expensive starting with $29.99 rising to $79.99 with Time Warner Cable than satellite television starting at $20.99 and only rising to $58.99
• Cable TV is only available to the people who live in areas where service is offered by the provider, while satellite TV is available anywhere that a dish can be installed to face south.
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"Early Electronic TV." Early Electronic TV. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2014.
"The Social Impact." Of TV. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.
"TV History." Capturing TV History Through Video Interviews. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2014.
"Television Through the Decades and the Ways It Changed Our World - TopTenREVIEWS." TopTenREVIEWS. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.
"Television." Television. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2014.
"Study: Nearly Half of Americans Tune to Other Devices While Watching TV - Hollywood Reporter." The Hollywood Reporter. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
"How Have Hulu & Netflix Affected the Cable Companies?" Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
Enquirer, Amber Hunt The Cincinnati. "For Millions of Cord Cutters, Cable TV Fades to Black." USA Today. Gannett, 24 Aug. 2014. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
"The History Of Television." The History Of Television. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
"The Beginning of the End of Black and White Television." National Media Museum Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
1940 also saw the advent of political conventions brought to the homes of Americans, as they witnessed the first televised political convention. For the first time, many people could actually see President Franklin D. Roosevelt speaking to them, instead of listening to his fireside chats on the radio.
In 1941, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began to develop a list of standards by which television shows would be based. On the first day that licenses were issued NBC and CBS began broadcasting as stations WNBT and WCBW respectively.