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Pregnancy, L & D

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Andrea Silvers

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Pregnancy, L & D

Pregnancy, Labor & Delivery
The Female Reproductive System
The Male Reproduction System
The Male Reproductive system includes body parts such as the the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. When all these body parts are active their goal is to inject semen into he vagina( a body part from the female reproductive system)
Solutions for Infertile Couples
When couples are not able to have a baby(infertility couples) one of the best solutions are to adopt. Adopting consist of the process of taking a child of other parents legally as your own child.
Infertile Couple Solution
When couples are not able to have a baby(infertility couples) one of the best solutions is to use artificial insemination for a successful birth. Artificial insemination is the process when semen is injected into a woman's vagina and can be from her husband or possibly another male in order to produce a baby.Chapter 5: Prenatal Development pg 153
artificial insemination
The Female Reproductive system includes body parts such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. These parts are what distinguishes the difference between a woman from a man. The Female Reproductive system is the process of how life is created.

Conception is the process of becoming pregnant by fertilization or implantation or both. As sperm and and the female egg unite conception takes place. Chapter 5: Prenatal Development
Birth Defect
Aglossia: Algossia is a birth defect that is being born without a tongue. This abnormality is caused mainly from people who have congenital and developmental problems. Ofter Algossia is present with other deformities such as missing parts of hands and feet, small jaw and oral webbing.
Symptoms include:
-Missing tongue
-Feeding problems
-Breathing problems in some cases
-Speech problems
-Swallowing problems
-Missing teeth (variable, usually involves the lower front teeth)
-Tooth enamel defects variable
-Missing or abnormally small tongue (front two thirds of the tongue is missing)
Orthodontics are usually doctors who are able to treat Aglossia. Aglossia being that it is a condition that involves the absence of the tongue can have a huge implication on good oral structure and function. Orthodontic treatment consist of preventing further mouth disorders.
The Likelihood of multiples
White Americans/White Europeans: 14.5 in 1000 (1 in 69)
Black Americans: 1 in 60 (but as low as 1 in 40)
Japanese: 1 in 150
Chinese: 1 in 250
Mixed Asian: 1 in 125
Nigerian: 1 in 22
Norway, Denmark, Netherlands: 1 in 49
England: 1 in 76
Hellin's Law

Hellin's Law states that before the advent of fertility methods, the natural occurrence of multiples would be as follows:

Twins 1 in 90 live births
Triplets 1 in 8,100 live births
Quadruplets 1 in 729,000 live births
Quintuplets 1 in 65,610,000 live births

Those numbers have lowered to 1 in 38 for twins with fertility methods, as well as lowering the numbers for all other multiples. It is estimated that 60% of triplets are from fertility treatments, 90% of quadruplets are from fertility treatments, and 99% of quintuplets are due to fertility treatments.
Surprising Facts About Twins
What its actually like being a Twin
Developments of the Fetus during each trimester
Definition: the cell that is produced from the unification of a mothers egg and sperm cell.
Definition: The developing pregnancy from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation
Definition: is what an unborn baby is during the second month of pregnancy until birth
The genetic information (DNA) that is in the zygote, which is needed for the baby, comes from the mother’s egg and half from the father’s sperm. After the unification of the mothers egg and sperm cell the zygote spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube and divides to form a ball of cells. The formation of the zygote occurs before the stages of the trimesters.
As the embryo implants itself into the uterine wall, several developments take place this takes places during the first trimester it including the development of the:
Umbilical cord
Amniotic sac
During the first trimester rapid growth occurs such as the baby's main external features begin to take form.

The fetus during the second trimester has developed all of its organs and systems and now will focus on growing in size and weight; the umbilical cord continues to thicken as it carries nourishment to the fetus.

During the third trimester the fetus continues to grow in weight and size, The lungs are still maturing, and the fetus begins to position itself head-down. The brain continues to develop.
Developments of the Mother during each trimester
Facts about the health of the Mother and baby

Take a multivitamin every day that has 400 mcg (0.4 mg) of folic acid. Folic acid is a B vitamin that helps prevent serious birth defects of the heart and brain. But it only helps if the mother takes it before pregnancy and in the first three months of pregnancy.
Stop smoking. Get others at home and at work to stop smoking too to cut down on second-hand smoke.
Stop drinking alcohol and/or using illegal drugs. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is one of the most common birth defects. Every case is preventable by not drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
Have a pre-pregnancy health check-up with a doctor, midwife, or nurse practitioner. Women with chronic health problems such as diabetes or high blood pressure and women who take medicines or herbs especially need pre-pregnancy care.
Talk to your health care provider about the possible risk of lead poisoning. If lead gets into your body, it could harm you and your unborn baby.
The process of labor and delivery
Labor is the process of when the fetus and placenta leave the uterus. Delivery is the process of how the mother births the baby. Delivery occurs in two ways, vaginally or by a cesarean delivery.
Cesarean Birth
If the mother cannot delivery the baby vaginally then a C-section (Cesarean Birth) has to take place. During this time doctors numb the mother and cut an incision across the belly to be able to deliver the baby successfully.
Hospital Birth
Hospital births are known to be the most controlled and sterile place for delivery. The comfort of doctors and nurses consist in this enviornment.

Home Birth
Home Birth is when the mother delivers the baby not inside a hospital. People usually involved are midwives or medical personnel so that the birth is successful and safe.
Pain Management
Description of pain medicines used during labor
Opana oral
Oxymorphone oral
Demerol inj
oxymorphone inj
nalbuphine inj
Demerol (PF) inj
meperidine inj
Opana inj
Talwin inj
butorphanol tartrate inj
pentazocine lactate inj
meperidine in 0.9 % NaCl IV
meperidine (PF) inj
Description of each stage of Labor
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