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Ap Biology Part 1 Review
Transcript of Ap Biology Part 1 Review
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
All living organisms fall either under the eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells depending on their cell structure.
Has no nucleus
NO membrane bound organelles
such as: mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts,
golgi apparatus, etc
Contains a nucleus
Contains membrane organelles
Found only in Eubacteria
and archaebacteria kingdoms
Found in animal, plant, fungi, and protista kingdoms
Examples: skin or plant cells
Four Types Of Cellular Transport
Process in which molecules move from high to low concentration . Types of diffusion are osmosis and facilated diffusion.
Passive diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher solute to lower concentration. The area of less solute is called hypotonic, while the area with more solute is called hypertonic.
The diffusion of a substance across the membrane with the help of carrier proteins.
Active and passive Transport
moves substances from low to high concentrations.
Helps maintain equilibrium
Moves molecules from high to low concentrations.
Does not require energy
Molecules move against
Example: Diffusion of
oxygen into an aerobically
Simple, channel, and facilitated diffusion are all considered passive transports.
Example: the uptake of glucose in the human body.
Why is Transport Essential To Life?
-If we didn't have transport, cells wouldn't be able to import and export essential materials that we need to maintain our daily lifes.
Characteristics Necessary for Life
everyday every living thing works together to take in the essential energy from the environment.
As more things are available the population grows.
All living things reproduce, responding and adapting to their environment.
Viruses, Prions, and Viroids
Contains protein coating called a caspid.
Cannot survive without a host cell
depend on protein synthesis of living cells to reproduce.
Do not contain nucleic acid
Contain single protein called PrP
affect the structure of the brain.
Ex: BSE(mad cow disease), or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.
Very small circular RNA
Do not contain a caspid
Ex: Potato spindle tuber viroid
VIRUSES, VIROIDS, and PRIONS are all acellular pathogens, meaning that they:
are not made out of cells, cannot reproduce, they don't transform energy, and they do not grow or go through protein synthesis.
Some of their characteristics is that they need a host to cause damage, and they contain a protein coat.
The use of energy(ATP) by transporting proteins to move substances to the inside or outside of the membrane. Cells move materials in the opposite direction against the concentration gradient.
Are Viruses, prions, and viroids considered to be alive?
Even though viruses, prions, and viroids can reproduce and contain DNA or RNA, they are not considered to be alive. Why? they steal everything they need from the host.
Catabolic and Anabolic reactions
Breaks down large molecules to produce energy
Creates large molecules out of small molecules
ex:When body makes fat
EX: the breakdown
of food by your metabolism
out of extra nutrients.
Components of the Cell Cycle
This is where the cell spends most of its time growing and carrying out its normal functions.
It is made up of three stages; G1, S, and G2.
G1 phase(first gap)-
During this time the cell goes through growth and carries out protein synthesis.
Cells replicate their DNA, at the end of the stage all chromosomes have two chromatids, but not completely visible.
G2 Phase(second gap)-
Cell continues to carry out normal functions and it may continue to grow. At the end of the stage cytoplasmic organelles replicate to prepare for mitosis.
Where the cell divides resulting in two identical cells containing the same number of chromosomes. It consists of the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.
During this phase pair of chromosomes start to form while the nuclear membrane starts to disappear. Spindle fibers form at opposite poles of the cell.
Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
The pair chromosomes( sister chromatids) separate and move to the opposite ends of the cell.
The nucleus of the cell is divided into two nuclei.
Cytoplasm divides producing distinct daughter cells.
Mitosis and Binary Fission
Happens to bacteria and prokaryotes
(Does not contain a nucleus)
Happens to Eukaryotes
(Contain a nucleus)
Process of cellular division is faster
Process of cellular division is slower since it has to go trough more phases because the nucleus has to divide too.
cell duplicates its chromosomes and then splits into two identical cells, no nucleus has to divide.
The division of the cell's nucleus
Happens through asexual reproduction.
Happens through asexual reproduction
Mitosis and Meiosis
Asexual reproduction where cell divides into two identical ones with the same amount of chromosomes in each diploid cell
2 diploid cells
the amount of chromosomes remain the same
Helps growth and repair of the body
Cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half, producing two haploid cells.
4 haploid cells
chromosomes are reduced by half
helps for sexual reproduction
DNA and RNA
Contains 4 bases; Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine.
Base pairing rule: A with T and C with G.
Contains 4 bases, Adenine, Cytosine,
Guanine, and Thymine is replaced
Base pairing: A with U and C with
Can undergo self replication
Can't undergo self replication
Composed of sub units called nucleotides
Stores genetic information and and transmits it to make other cells and organisms.
Transfers genetic code from nucleus to ribosomes to make proteins.
First the double helix of the DNA unwinds.
unzips the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds, with the single strand proteins keeping them separated.
enzyme DNA polymerase
walks down the leading and lagging strand, adding the correct nucleotides to each strand(A with T and G with C).
seals up the fragments into one long strand.
Finally their is two exactly replications of DNA.
Transcription in Eukaryotic Cells
Transcription is the process of copying, messenger RNA is synthesized to a copy of DNA inside a cell.
Messenger RNA is moved from the original strand of gene.
Then, RNA polymerase separates the two strands of DNA and puts together the RNA nucleotides with the DNA.
The DNA then is transcribed and the two DNA strands come back together as the RNA is pushed out of the polymerase.
Finally the RNA is released and the polymerase is released from the DNA.
During translation the mRNA is translated to produce the correct amount of amino acids into a protein.
mRNA enters the cytoplasm while a ribosome gets attached
tRNA's carrying a specific amino acid pair up with the mRNA codons inside the ribosome. (A-U, C-G)
tRNA brings the correct amino acid to each codon
Translation is the process in which the mRNA is translated to produce the correct order of amino acids into a protein.
mRNA enters the cytoplasm as a ribosome gets attached.
tRNAs carrying amino acids pair up with mRNA codons inside the ribosome.
tRNA bring correct amino acids to each codon as the ribosome moves down the mRNA producing a protein.
Finally the ribosome hits a STOP codon and falls apart
Transcription in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Transcription in Eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Transcription occurs in nucleus
have three different RNA polymerase
DNA is used to form chromatin
Has introns that are spliced
Transcription occurs in cytoplasm
Have one RNA polymerase
DNA is wrapped around proteins to create
Does not have introns or chromatin
Alleles and Genes
A gene is part of DNA that determine genetic traits such as eye color, while an allele is a variation of genes that determine single characteristics, such as brown eye color. Even though they are different they share a close relationship because an allele is a version of a gene that work together to make us look different than others.
Autosomes and sex Chromosomes
-Autosomes are the 22 chromosomes that do not determine sex but determine the traits that will be expressed, while the sex chromosomes is the 23 chromosome that determines gender. (XY=male, XX=female)
Genotype and Phenotype
in the alleles of the cell.
It depends on the information
given by the parents.
Expressed trait that is
easily visible. EX: eye color
It depends on the genotype
and environmental influence.
Contains a heredity information.
Contains expressed genes only.
-They relate in the way that the genotype codes for the phenotype. In other words, the genotype carries all the instructions to produce the phenotype of the individual.
-Incomplete dominance is the type of inheritance where one allele of trait is not fully dominant to the other allele. One would be dominant and the other recessive.
An example could be a a white and red flower crossing and creating a red flower.
The three domains of life.
The three domains of life characterize every living thing on the planet. Their is Archaea (archaebacteria), the Bacteria (eubacteria), and the Eukarya (eukaryotes)
Are able to sustain extreme weather and environment conditions because their membrane is much more stable.
Some of these include methanogens, halophiles, and thermoacidophiles.
Their membranes are composed of branched hydrocarbon chains.
Closed in a rigid cell wall that protect them from osmotic environments.
The walls give them their different shape that help characterize them into bacillus(rod-like), coccus(round), and spirillum(corkscrew).
Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission.
some examples of bacteria are cyanobacteria, gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Contain Eukaryotic cells
It is divided into the protista, fungi, plantate, and animalia kingdoms.
Protista- Unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Examples are algae or slime molds
Fungi-Unicellular or multicellular organisms. They do don't carry out photosynthesis but obtain nutrients through absorption.
Plantae- Multicellular organism composed of eukaryotic cells. They go through photosynthesis and absorption. Examples:plants.
Animalia- Multicellular organisms composed of eukaryotic cells. They obtain nutrients by ingestion. Example: sponges.
The Body systems
The Process of Transcription
-They are similar in the way
that both depend on the
Are forms of asexual reproduction
Both divide to make two daughter cells.
-Ap reference Pack