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Non-Conventional Manufacturing Process

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Muhammad Imran Khan

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Non-Conventional Manufacturing Process

Non-Conventional Process
• Process description and capability
– Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
– Chemical Machining
– Electrical-Discharge Machining (EDM)
• High-Energy-Beam Machining
– Laser-beam machining (LBM)

Laser–Beam Machining (LBM)
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
Chemical Machining (CM)
Chemical Machining (CM)
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Non-traditional manufacturing processes is defined as a group of processes that remove
excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical
energy or combinations of these energies but do not use a sharp cutting tools as it needs to be
used for traditional manufacturing processes.

Several types of non-traditional machining processes have been developed to meet extra
required machining conditions. When these processes are employed properly, they offer
many advantages over non-traditional machining processes. The common non-traditional
machining processes are described in this section.
Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes.It is a process that removes metal through the repeated sparking of electrical current. During machining, the workpiece and an electrode are immersed in a dielectric fluid.
It is also one of the non conventional machining process that removes metal from a workpiece by immersing it into a chemical solution.
Laser-beam machining is a thermal material-removal process that utilizes a high-energy,
coherent light beam to melt and vaporize particles on the surface of metallic and non-metallic
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
USM is mechanical material removal process or an abrasive process used to erode holes or
cavities on hard or brittle workpiece by using shaped tools, high frequency mechanical
motion and an abrasive slurry
EDM is a controlled metal-removal process that is used to remove metal by means of electric spark erosion.
This method is sometimes called "spark machining" because it removes metal by producing a rapid series of repetitive electrical discharges
Sinker EDM
Sinker EDM, also called cavity type EDM or volume EDM, consists of an electrode and workpiece submerged in an insulating liquid such as, more typically,[23] oil or, less frequently, other dielectric fluids
Wire EDM
In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), also known as wire-cut EDM and wire cutting, a thin single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed through the workpiece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized water
The EDM process has the ability to machine hard, difficult-to-machine materials.
Application Of EDM Process
Parts with complex, precise and irregular shapes for forging, press tools, extrusion dies, difficult internal
shapes for aerospace and medical applications can be made by EDM process. Some of the
shapes made by EDM process are shown in this figure
There a two types
Working Of EDM Process
Principle Of USM
In the UM process, a low-frequency electrical signal is applied to a transducer, which converts the electrical energy into high-frequency (~20 KHz) mechanical vibration
Working Of USM
In ultrasonic machining, tool of desired shape vibrates at ultrasonic frequency ( 19 to25 kHz. ) with an amplitude of 15-50 Microns over work piece.
Application Of USM
The beauty of USM is that it can make non round shapes in hard and brittle materials
(Ultrasonic cutter)
(A microhole in quarts glass machined by USM)
(Ultrasonic drilling)
Advantages Of USM
1-Any materials can be machined regardless of their electrical conductivity

2-Especially suitable for machining of brittle materials

3-USM does not produce thermal, electrical and chemical abnormal surface
Disadvantages Of USM
1-USM has higher power consumption and lower material-removal rates than traditional
fabrication processes.

2-Machining area and depth is restraint in USM.
Working Of CM
Chemical machining, basically an etching process.Material is removed from a surface by chemical dissolution using chemical reagents, or etchants.
Application Of CM
Chemical Milling:
In chemical milling, shallow cavities are produced on plates, sheets, forgings and extrusions
Chemical milling is used in the aerospace industry to remove shallow layers of material from
large aircraft components missile skin panelsextruded parts for airframes
(Missile skin-panel section contoured by chemical milling to improve the
stiffness- to- weight ratio of the part)
Laser–Beam Machining (LBM)
Working Principle Of LBM
Laser cutting is a thermal separation process. Our pulsed Nd: YAG and fiber lasers permit a controlled heat entry which is optimum for fine cutting.
Types Of LBM

In drilling, energy transferred (e.g., via a Nd:YAG laser) into the workpiece melts the
material at the point of contact, which subsequently changes into a plasma and leaves
the region.
(SEM micrograph hole drilled in 250 micro meter thick Silicon Nitride with 3rd
harmonic Nd: YAG laser)
A laser spot reflected onto the surface of a workpiece travels along a prescribed
trajectory and cuts into the material.
Application Of LBM
– Multiple holes in very thin and thick materials
– Non-standard shaped holes and slots
– Prototype parts
– Trimming, scribing and engraving of hard materials
– Small diameter lubrication holes
Small diameter lubrication hole
Advantages of LBM
· No limit to cutting path as the laser point can move any path.
· Very hard and abrasive material can be cut.
· Sticky materials are also can be cut by this process.
· It is a cost effective and flexible process.
· High accuracy parts can be machined.
· No cutting lubricants required
· No tool wear
· Narrow heat effected zone
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